Why Did Theodore Roosevelt Start His Own Political Party

American third party founded past Theodore Roosevelt

Progressive Party

Chair Theodore Roosevelt
Founded 1912; 110 years ago
 (1912)
Dissolved 1920; 102 years ago
 (1920)
Split up from Republican Party
Merged into Republican Party (bulk)
Succeeded by California Progressive Party
Headquarters Washington, D.C.
Ideology Progressivism
New Nationalism
Political position Center-left to left-wing[1]
Colors
Red[2]
  • Politics of United States
  • Political parties
  • Elections

The
Progressive Party
was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 past former president Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his onetime protégé rival, incumbent president William Howard Taft. The new party was known for taking avant-garde positions on progressive reforms and attracting leading national reformers. Later on the party’southward defeat in the 1912 presidential election, information technology went into rapid decline in elections until 1918, disappearing by 1920. The Progressive Party was popularly nicknamed the “Bull Moose Political party” when Roosevelt boasted that he felt “potent as a bull moose” afterwards losing the Republican nomination in June 1912 at the Chicago convention.[3]

As a fellow member of the Republican Political party, Roosevelt had served as president from 1901 to 1909, becoming increasingly progressive in the later years of his presidency. In the 1908 presidential ballot, Roosevelt helped ensure that he would be succeeded by Secretary of War Taft. Although Taft entered office determined to advance Roosevelt’s Foursquare Deal domestic calendar, he stumbled badly during the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Human activity contend and the Pinchot–Ballinger controversy. The political fallout of these events divided the Republican Party and alienated Roosevelt from his former friend.[4]
Progressive Republican leader Robert Thousand. La Follette had already appear a challenge to Taft for the 1912 Republican nomination, but many of his supporters shifted to Roosevelt after the former president decided to seek a third presidential term, which was permissible under the Constitution prior to the ratification of the Xx-2nd Amendment. At the 1912 Republican National Convention, Taft narrowly defeated Roosevelt for the political party’due south presidential nomination. After the convention, Roosevelt, Frank Munsey, George Walbridge Perkins and other progressive Republicans established the Progressive Party and nominated a ticket of Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson of California at the 1912 Progressive National Convention. The new party attracted several Republican officeholders, although about all of them remained loyal to the Republican Party—in California, Johnson and the Progressives took control of the Republican Party.

The party’southward platform built on Roosevelt’due south Foursquare Deal domestic plan and chosen for several progressive reforms. The platform asserted that “to dissolve the unholy alliance between decadent business and corrupt politics is the first chore of the statesmanship of the twenty-four hours”. Proposals on the platform included restrictions on entrada finance contributions, a reduction of the tariff and the establishment of a social insurance arrangement, an viii-hr workday and women’s suffrage. The party was split up on the regulation of large corporations, with some political party members disappointed that the platform did non contain a stronger call for “trust-busting”. Party members likewise had different outlooks on foreign policy, with pacifists like Jane Addams opposing Roosevelt’south call for a naval build-up.

In the 1912 election, Roosevelt won 27.4% of the popular vote compared to Taft’due south 23.2%, making Roosevelt the only third party presidential nominee to finish with a higher share of the popular vote than a major party’due south presidential nominee. Both Taft and Roosevelt finished behind Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, who won 41.8% of the popular vote and the vast majority of the electoral vote. The Progressives elected several Congressional and state legislative candidates, but the ballot was marked primarily by Democratic gains. The 1916 Progressive National Convention was held in conjunction with the 1916 Republican National Convention in hopes of reunifying the parties with Roosevelt as the presidential nominee of both parties. The Progressive Political party collapsed later on Roosevelt refused the Progressive nomination and insisted his supporters vote for Charles Evans Hughes, the moderately progressive Republican nominee. Most Progressives joined the Republican Party, but some converted to the Democratic Party and Progressives such as Harold 50. Ickes would play a office in President Franklin D. Roosevelt’due south administration. In 1924, La Follette set up another Progressive Party for his presidential run. A third Progressive Party was prepare in 1948 for the presidential campaign of former vice president Henry A. Wallace.

Founding

[edit]

Theodore Roosevelt was the founder of the Progressive Party and thus is oft associated with the party

Roosevelt left role in 1909. He had selected Taft, his Secretary of War, to succeed him as the presidential candidate and Taft hands won the 1908 presidential election. Roosevelt became disappointed by Taft’s increasingly conservative policies. Taft upset Roosevelt when he used the Sherman Anti-Trust Deed to sue U.Due south. Steel for an action that President Roosevelt had explicitly approved.[5]
They became openly hostile and Roosevelt decided to seek the presidency. Roosevelt entered the campaign late equally Taft was already being challenged by Progressive leader senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin. Most of La Follette’southward supporters switched to Roosevelt, leaving the Wisconsin senator embittered.

Nine of the states where progressive elements were strongest had ready preference primaries, which Roosevelt won, merely Taft had worked far harder than Roosevelt to control the Republican Party’s organizational operations and the mechanism for choosing its presidential nominee, the 1912 Republican National Convention. For example, he bought upwardly the votes of delegates from the Southern states, copying the technique Roosevelt himself used in 1904. The Republican National Convention rejected Roosevelt’southward protests. Roosevelt and his supporters walked out and the convention re-nominated Taft. The next twenty-four hours, Roosevelt supporters met to grade a new party of their own. California Governor Hiram Johnson became its chairman and a new convention was scheduled for Baronial. Most of the funding came from wealthy sponsors, magazine publisher Frank A. Munsey provided $135,000; and George W. Perkins, a manager of U.South. Steel and chairman of the International Harvester Visitor, gave $130,000 and became its executive secretary. Roosevelt’s family unit gave $77,500 and others gave $164,000. The total was nearly $600,000, far less than the major parties.[six]
[7]

The new party had serious structural defects. Since it insisted on running complete tickets against the regular Republican ticket in most states, few Republican politicians were willing to support it. The exception was California, where the progressive element took control of the Republican Party and Taft was not even on the November election. Only five of the 15 more progressive Republican Senators declared support for it. Republican Representatives, Governors, committeemen and the publishers and editors of Republican-leaning newspapers showed comparable reluctance. Many of Roosevelt’s closest political allies supported Taft, including his son-in-law, Nicholas Longworth (though Roosevelt’southward daughter Alice stuck with her father, causing a permanent chill in her marriage). For men such as Longworth, expecting a time to come of his own in Republican politics, bolting the political party would take seemed tantamount to career suicide. Notwithstanding, many independent reformers still signed up.

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Historian Jonathan Lurie notes that scholars usually identify Roosevelt every bit the leader near identified with progressive conservatism. Roosevelt said he had “always believed that wise progressivism and wise conservatism become hand in hand”.[8]
Nevertheless, Taft and his supporters often hailed Taft as the model progressive conservative and Taft himself said he was “a believer in progressive conservatism”.[9]
Four decades later on Dwight D. Eisenhower alleged himself an abet of “progressive conservatism”.[ten]

Progressive convention and platform

[edit]

Despite these obstacles, the August convention opened with smashing enthusiasm. Over 2,000 delegates attended, including many women. In 1912, neither Taft nor Wilson endorsed women’s suffrage on the national level.[xi]
The notable suffragist and social worker Jane Addams gave a seconding speech communication for Roosevelt’s nomination, just Roosevelt insisted on excluding black Republicans from the South (whom he regarded as a corrupt and ineffective element).[12]
Yet he alienated white Southern supporters on the eve of the election by publicly dining with black people at a Rhode Island hotel.[13]
[fourteen]
Roosevelt was nominated past acclaim, with Johnson equally his running mate.

The chief work of the convention was the platform, which set forth the new party’s appeal to the voters. It included a broad range of social and political reforms long advocated by progressives. It spoke with near-religious fervor and the candidate himself promised: “Our crusade is based on the eternal principle of righteousness; and even though we, who now atomic number 82 may for the time fail, in the end the cause itself shall triumph”.[15]

16-page campaign booklet with the platform of the new Progressive Party

The platform’s main theme was reversing the domination of politics past concern interests, which allegedly controlled the Republican and Democratic parties, akin. The platform asserted:

To destroy this invisible Authorities, to deliquesce the unholy alliance betwixt corrupt business concern and corrupt politics is the offset task of the statesmanship of the mean solar day.[16]

To that cease, the platform chosen for:

  • Strict limits and disclosure requirements on political entrada contributions
  • Registration of lobbyists
  • Recording and publication of Congressional committee proceedings

In the social sphere, the platform called for:

  • A national health service to include all existing government medical agencies
  • Social insurance, to provide for the elderly, the unemployed, and the disabled
  • Limiting the power of judges to order injunctions to limit labor strikes
  • A minimum wage law for women
  • An eight-hour workday
  • A federal securities committee
  • Farm relief
  • Workers’ compensation for piece of work-related injuries
  • An inheritance taxation

The political reforms proposed included:

  • Women’south suffrage
  • Direct election of senators
  • Primary elections for state and federal nominations
  • Easier alteration of the United States Constitution[17]
    [18]
    [19]

The platform also urged states to adopt measures for “direct republic”, including:

  • The call back election (citizens may remove an elected official before the end of his term)
  • The plebiscite (citizens may decide on a constabulary by popular vote)
  • The initiative (citizens may propose a law by petition and enact it by popular vote)
  • Judicial recollect (when a court declares a law unconstitutional, the citizens may override that ruling by popular vote)[twenty]

As well these measures, the platform chosen for reductions in the tariff and limitations on naval armaments by international understanding. The platform also vaguely called for the creation of a national health service, making Roosevelt probable the commencement major political leader to phone call for health care reform.[21]

The biggest controversy at the convention was over the platform section dealing with trusts and monopolies. The convention canonical a stiff “trust-busting” plank, but Perkins had it replaced with language that spoke only of “strong National regulation” and “permanent active [Federal] supervision” of major corporations. This retreat shocked reformers like Pinchot, who blamed information technology on Perkins. The upshot was a deep split up in the new political party that was never resolved.[22]

The platform in general expressed Roosevelt’s “New Nationalism”, an extension of his before philosophy of the Square Deal. He called for new restraints on the power of federal and state judges along with a stiff executive to regulate industry, protect the working classes and carry on peachy national projects. This New Nationalism was paternalistic, in directly contrast to Wilson’s individualistic philosophy of “New Freedom”. However, one time elected, Wilson’s actual programme resembled Roosevelt’s ideas, autonomously from the notion of reining in judges.[23]

Roosevelt also favored a vigorous foreign policy, including stiff military ability. Though the platform called for limiting naval armaments, it likewise recommended the construction of two new battleships per year, much to the distress of outright pacifists such as Jane Addams.[24]

Elections

[edit]

1912

[edit]

Roosevelt mixing ideologies in his speeches in this 1912 editorial cartoon by Karl K. Knecht (1883–1972) in the
Evansville Courier

Roosevelt ran a vigorous campaign, only the campaign was curt of money as the business interests which had supported Roosevelt in 1904 either backed the other candidates or stayed neutral. Roosevelt was likewise handicapped because he had already served nearly two full terms as president and thus was challenging the unwritten “no 3rd term” rule.

In the end, Roosevelt fell far short of winning. He drew 4.1 million votes—27%, well behind Wilson’southward 42%, but alee of Taft’s 23% (six% went to Socialist Eugene Debs). Roosevelt received 88 electoral votes, compared to 435 for Wilson and viii for Taft.[25]
This was yet the all-time showing past any third political party since the modern two-political party system was established in 1864. Roosevelt was the only tertiary-party candidate to outpoll a candidate of an established political party.

Pro-Roosevelt drawing contrasts the Republican Party bosses in dorsum row and Progressive Party reformers in front

Many historians have concluded that the Republican split was essential to let Wilson to win the presidency. Others argue that even without the split, Wilson would accept won (as he did in 1916).

In addition to Roosevelt’southward presidential campaign, hundreds of other candidates sought function as Progressives in 1912.

Twenty-one ran for governor. Over 200 ran for U.S. Representative (the exact number is non clear because there were many Republican-Progressive fusion candidacies and some candidates ran with the labels of
ad hoc
groups such every bit “Balderdash Moose Republicans” or (in Pennsylvania) the “Washington Party”.)

On October 14, 1912, while Roosevelt was campaigning in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, a saloonkeeper from New York, John Flammang Schrank, shot him, simply the bullet lodged in his chest merely later penetrating both his steel eyeglass example and a fifty-folio unmarried-folded re-create of the speech communication titled “Progressive Cause Greater Than Whatever Individual“, he was to deliver, carried in his jacket pocket. Schrank was immediately disarmed, captured and might have been lynched had Roosevelt not shouted for Schrank to remain unharmed.[26]
Roosevelt assured the oversupply he was all right, and so ordered law to have charge of Schrank and to make sure no violence was done to him.[27]
Equally an experienced hunter and anatomist, Roosevelt correctly ended that since he was not coughing blood, the bullet had not reached his lung and he declined suggestions to go to the hospital immediately. Instead, he delivered his scheduled speech communication with claret seeping into his shirt.[28]
He spoke for 90 minutes before completing his voice communication and accepting medical attention. His opening comments to the gathered oversupply were: “Ladies and gentlemen, I don’t know whether yous fully understand that I have merely been shot, but information technology takes more than than that to kill a Balderdash Moose”.[29]
[30]
[
citation needed
]

Afterwards, probes and an 10-ray showed that the bullet had lodged in Roosevelt’s chest muscle, but did not penetrate the pleura. Doctors ended that information technology would be less dangerous to leave it in place than to attempt to remove information technology and Roosevelt carried the bullet with him for the residual of his life.[31]
[32]
In later years, when asked virtually the bullet inside him, Roosevelt would say: “I do not mind it any more than than if it were in my waistcoat pocket”.[33]

Read:   A Theme is the Conveyed in the Text

Both Taft and Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson suspended their own candidature until Roosevelt recovered and resumed his. When asked if the shooting would affect his election campaign, he said to the reporter “I’m fit equally a bull moose”, which inspired the party’due south emblem.[34]
He spent ii weeks recuperating before returning to the campaign trail. Despite his tenacity, Roosevelt ultimately lost his bid for reelection.[35]

In California, the state Republican Party was controlled by Governor and Roosevelt marry Hiram Johnson, the vice presidential nominee, so Progressives there stayed with the Republican label (with one exception).

Most of the Progressive candidates were in New York, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Massachusetts. Only a few were in the South.

The bottom Progressive candidates more often than not got between 10% and 30% of the vote. Nine Progressives were elected to the Business firm and none won governorships.[36]

Some historians speculate that if the Progressive Political party had run but the Roosevelt presidential ticket, information technology might have attracted many more Republicans willing to split their ballot, simply the progressive movement was strongest at the country level and so the new political party had fielded candidates for governor and state legislature. In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the local Republican boss, at odds with land party leaders, joined Roosevelt’s cause. In spite of this, nearly 250 Progressives were elected to local offices. The Democrats gained many land legislature seats, which gave them x boosted U.S. Senate seats—they as well gained 63 U.S. House seats.

1914

[edit]

Despite the second-identify finish of 1912, the Progressive Political party did not disappear at once. One hundred thirty-eight candidates, including women,[37]
ran for the U.S. House as Progressives in 1914 and 5 were elected. Yet, well-nigh half the candidates failed to get more than than x% of the vote.[38]

Gifford Pinchot placed second in the Senate ballot in Pennsylvania, gathering 24% of the vote.

Hiram Johnson was denied renomination for governor as a Republican—he ran as a Progressive and was re-elected. Vii other Progressives ran for governor; none got more than 16%.[39]
Some state parties remained fairly strong. In Washington, Progressives won a third of the seats in the Washington Country Legislature.

1916

[edit]

Louisiana businessman John M. Parker ran for governor as a Progressive early on in the year as the Republican Political party was securely unpopular in Louisiana. Parker got a respectable 37% of the vote and was the only Progressive to run for governor that yr.[40]

Afterward that year, the party held its second national convention, in conjunction with the Republican National Convention equally this was to facilitate a possible reconciliation. 5 delegates from each convention met to negotiate and the Progressives wanted reunification with Roosevelt as nominee, which the Republicans doggedly opposed. Meanwhile, Charles Evans Hughes, a moderate Progressive, became the front-runner at the Republican convention. He had been on the Supreme Courtroom in 1912 and thus was completely neutral on the bitter debates that year. The Progressives suggested Hughes as a compromise candidate, then Roosevelt sent a bulletin proposing conservative senator Henry Cabot Lodge. The shocked Progressives immediately nominated Roosevelt again, with Parker as the vice presidential nominee. Roosevelt refused to accept the nomination and endorsed Hughes, who was immediately canonical by the Republican convention.[41]

The remnants of the national Progressive party promptly disintegrated. Most Progressives reverted to the Republican Party, including Roosevelt, who stumped for Hughes; and Hiram Johnson, who was elected to the Senate as a Republican. Some leaders, such equally Harold Ickes of Chicago, supported Wilson.

1918

[edit]

All the remaining Progressives in Congress rejoined the Republican Party, except Whitmell Martin, who became a Democrat. No candidates ran as Progressives for governor, senator or representative.

Later years

[edit]

Robert M. La Follette Sr. broke bitterly with Roosevelt in 1912 and ran for president on his own ticket, the 1924 Progressive Party, during the 1924 presidential election.

From 1916 to 1932, the Taft fly controlled the Republican Political party and refused to nominate any prominent 1912 Progressives to the Republican national ticket. Finally, Frank Knox was nominated for vice president in 1936.

The relative domination of the Republican Party by conservatives left many one-time Progressives with no real affiliation until the 1930s, when well-nigh joined the New Deal Democratic Party coalition of President Franklin D. Roosevelt.

Electoral history

[edit]

In congressional elections

[edit]

In presidential elections

[edit]

Election Candidate Running mate Votes Vote % Electoral votes +/- Effect of election
1912 T Roosevelt.jpg

Theodore Roosevelt
Souvenir of the unveiling, dedication and presentation of the Abraham Lincoln G. A. R. memorial monument - dedicated to the veterans of the Civil War, 1861-1865, at Long Beach, California, July 3rd, (14576262447).jpg

Hiram Johnson
4,122,721 27.iv

88 / 531

Increase88 Democratic victory
1916 T Roosevelt.jpg

Theodore Roosevelt
(refused nomination)
GovJohnParker.jpg

John M. Parker
33,406 0.2

0 / 531

Decrease88 Democratic victory

Part holders from the Progressive Political party

[edit]

Position Name Country Dates held role
Representative James Westward. Bryan Washington 1913–1915
Governor Joseph Thousand. Carey Wyoming 1911–1912 as a Democrat, 1912-1915 as a Progressive
Representative Walter K. Chandler New York 1913–1919
Representative Ira Clifton Copley Illinois 1915–1917 as a Progressive
State Representative Bert F. Crapser Michigan 1913–1914
Representative John Elston California 1915–1917 every bit a Progressive, 1917–1921 equally a Republican
Lieutenant Governor John Morton Eshleman California 1915–1917
Representative Jacob Falconer Washington 1913–1915
Representative William H. Hinebaugh Illinois 1913–1915
Representative Willis J. Hulings Pennsylvania 1913–1915
Governor Hiram Johnson California 1911–1915 as a Republican, 1915-1917 as a Progressive
Representative Melville Clyde Kelly Pennsylvania 1917–1919 as a Progressive, 1919–1935 every bit a Republican
Representative William MacDonald Michigan 1913–1915
Representative Whitmell Martin Louisiana 1915–1919 as a Progressive, 1919–1929 as a Democrat
Senator Miles Poindexter Washington 1913–1915
Representative William Stephens California 1913–1917
Representative Henry Wilson Temple Pennsylvania 1913–1915
Representative Roy Woodruff Michigan 1913–1915
State Treasurer Homer D. Call New York 1914
Mayor Louis Will Syracuse, New York 1914–1916

Encounter too

[edit]

  • Commission of 48
  • Lincoln–Roosevelt League, the California Progressive Party in the early 1900s
  • Populist Political party (United states of america)
  • Progressive Political party (United States, 1924)
  • Progressive Party (United States, 1948)
  • California Progressive Party
  • Oregon Progressive Party
  • Wisconsin Progressive Party
  • Minnesota Progressive Party
  • Vermont Progressive Party

Footnotes

[edit]


  1. ^

    “Pushed Wilson in liberal directions,” states Patrick Selmi, “Jane Addams and the Progressive Party Entrada for President in 1912.”
    Journal of Progressive Homo Services
    22.2 (2011): 160-190.

  2. ^



    “Raise Red Bandana equally Roosevelt Battle Flag; Most Emblem of Socialism Gives Color to the New-Born Political party”.
    Idaho Statesman. Boise, Id. June 24, 1912. p. 4.

    • Stromquist, Shelton (2006).
      Reinventing ‘The People’
      . Chicago: University of Illinois Press. p. 101. ISBN9780252030260.
      When the Progressive convention opened in Chicago on August v, 1912, it reminded many observers of a revival…The social reform customs organized a ‘Jane Addams chorus,’ distributed brilliant red bandanas that became the party’southward symbol…


    • The American Promise. Vol. II. Boston, New York: Bedford/St. Martin’s. 2012. p. 674. ISBN9780312663148.


  3. ^


    Morris, Edmund.
    Colonel Roosevelt. New York: Random Firm Trade Paperbacks. pp. 215, 646.



  4. ^


    Arnold, Peri East. (October 4, 2016). “William Taft: Domestic Affairs”. Miller Center of Public Diplomacy, University of Virginia. Retrieved
    February 20,
    2019
    .



  5. ^


    Jean Strouse (2012).
    Morgan: American Financier. Random House. p. 1413. ISBN9780307827678.



  6. ^

    John A. Garraty,
    Right Manus Man: The Life of George W. Perkins
    (1960)

  7. ^


    James Chace (2009).
    1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft and Debs -The Election that Changed the Country. Simon and Schuster. p. 250. ISBN9781439188262.



  8. ^

    Jonathan Lurie.
    William Howard Taft: The Travails of a Progressive Bourgeois
    (Cambridge University Printing, 2012). p. 196.

  9. ^

    Lurie,
    William Howard Taft: The Travails of a Progressive Conservative
    p 9.

  10. ^

    Günter Bischof. “Eisenhower, the Judiciary, and Desegregation” by Stanley I. Kutler,
    Eisenhower: a centenary assessment. pp. 98.

  11. ^


    “Balderdash Moose years of Theodore Roosevelt by Theodore Roosevelt Association”. Theodoreroosevelt.org. Retrieved
    January 6,
    2012
    .



  12. ^

    George E. Mowry, “The South and the Progressive Lily White Party of 1912”.
    Journal of Southern History
    6#2 (1940): 237–247. JSTOR 2191208.

  13. ^


    Baum, B.; Harris, D. (2009).
    Racially Writing the Republic: Racists, Race Rebels, and Transformations of American Identity. Durham: Duke University Printing. p. 188. ISBN9780822344353.



  14. ^

    Paul D. Casdorph,
    Republicans, Negroes, and Progressives in the South, 1912-1916
    (1981).

  15. ^


    Melanie Gustafson (2001).
    Women and the Republican Political party, 1854–1924. p. 117. ISBN9780252093234.



  16. ^


    Patricia OToole (June 25, 2006). ““The State of war of 1912,”
    Fourth dimension
    in partnership with CNN, Jun. 25, 2006″

    . Time.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2006. Retrieved
    January six,
    2012
    .






  17. ^

    See clause # iv.

  18. ^

    Progressive Historians, by Richard Hofstadter, “He (Goodnow) was troubled past the thought that twentieth-century United States was governed past eighteenth-century precepts, and hence was defenseless between a virtually unamendable Constitution and wholly unamendable judges.”

  19. ^

    Autonomous Ideals, by Theodore Roosevelt, “We propose to brand the process of ramble amendment far easier, speedier, and simpler than at present.”

  20. ^

    Gary Murphy,
    ‘Mr. Roosevelt is Guilty’: Theodore Roosevelt and the Crusade for Constitutionalism, 1910–1912″.
    Journal of American Studies
    36#3 (2002): 441-457.

  21. ^


    “Progressive Political party Platform of 1912”.


  22. ^

    William Kolasky, “The Election of 1912: A Pivotal Moment in Antitrust History”.
    Antitrust
    25 (2010): 82+

  23. ^

    Robert Alexander Kraig, “The 1912 Election and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Liberal State”.
    Rhetoric and Public Diplomacy
    (2000): 363–395. JSTOR 41940243.

  24. ^


    Gustafson (2001).
    Women and the Republican Political party, 1854-1924. p. 117. ISBN9780252093234.



  25. ^



    Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U. Due south. elections. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Inc. 1985. pp. 295, 348.



  26. ^


    “The Bull Moose and related media”. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved
    March eight,
    2010
    .
    to make sure that no violence was done.



  27. ^


    Remey, Oliver East.; Cochems, Henry F.; Bloodgood, Wheeler P. (1912).
    The Attempted Assassination of Ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. Milwaukee, Wisconsin: The Progressive Publishing Company. p. 192.



  28. ^


    “Medical History of American Presidents”. Doctor Zebra. Retrieved
    September fourteen,
    2010
    .



  29. ^


    “Extract”,
    Detroit Gratuitous Printing, History buff

    .

  30. ^


    “It Takes More than Than That to Kill a Bull Moose: The Leader and The Cause”. Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved
    October 14,
    2015
    .



  31. ^


    “Roosevelt Timeline”. Theodore Roosevelt. Retrieved
    September xiv,
    2010
    .



  32. ^

    Timeline of Theodore Roosevelt’s Life by the Theodore Roosevelt Clan at www.theodoreroosevelt.org

  33. ^

    Donavan, p. 119

  34. ^


    “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on September 19, 2015. Retrieved
    Nov 9,
    2010
    .



    {{cite spider web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy equally title (link)


  35. ^


    “Justice Story: Teddy Roosevelt survives assassin when bullet hits folded speech in his pocket”.
    New York Daily News. Archived from the original on January 30, 2013. Retrieved
    October xiv,
    2013
    .



  36. ^


    Congressional Quarterly’south Guide to U.S. elections
    (1985), pp. 489–535, 873–879

  37. ^


    “A Kansas Woman Runs for Congress”.
    The Independent. July 13, 1914. Retrieved
    August fourteen,
    2012
    .



  38. ^


    Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U. Due south. elections
    (1985), pp. 880–885

  39. ^


    Congressional Quarterly’southward Guide to U. S. elections
    (1985), pp. 489–535

  40. ^


    Congressional Quarterly’s Guide to U. Southward. elections
    (1985), p. 503

  41. ^

    Fred L. Israel, “Bainbridge Colby and the Progressive Party, 1914–1916”.
    New York History
    40.1 (1959): 33–46. JSTOR 23153527.

Further reading

[edit]

  • Broderick, Francis 50.
    Progressivism at gamble: Electing a President in 1912
    (Praeger, 1989).
  • Chace, James.
    1912: Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft & Debs—the Election That Changed the State
    (2004).
  • Cowan, Geoffrey.
    Let the People Dominion: Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of the Presidential Master
    (2016).
  • Delahaye, Claire. “The New Nationalism and Progressive Issues: The Suspension with Taft and the 1912 Campaign,” in Serge Ricard, ed.,
    A Companion to Theodore Roosevelt
    (2011) pp. 452–467. online.
  • DeWitt, Benjamin P.
    The Progressive Movement: A Non-Partisan, Comprehensive Discussion of Current Tendencies in American Politics
    (1915).
  • Flehinger, Brett.
    The 1912 Election and the Power of Progressivism: A Brief History with Documents
    (Bedford/St. Martin’due south, 2003).
  • Gable, John A.
    The Bullmoose Years: Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party. Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1978.
  • Gould, Lewis Fifty.
    Four hats in the ring: The 1912 election and the birth of modern American politics
    (University Printing of Kansas, 2008).
  • Jensen, Richard. “Theodore Roosevelt” in
    Encyclopedia of Third Parties
    (ME Sharpe, 2000). pp. 702–707.
  • Kraig, Robert Alexander. “The 1912 Election and the Rhetorical Foundations of the Liberal State”.
    Rhetoric and Public Diplomacy
    (2000): 363–395. JSTOR 41940243.
  • Milkis, Sidney M., and Daniel J. Tichenor. “Direct Commonwealth’ and Social Justice: The Progressive Political party Campaign of 1912″.
    Studies in American Political Evolution
    8#two (1994): 282–340.
  • Milkis, Sidney M.
    Theodore Roosevelt, the Progressive Party, and the Transformation of American Republic. Lawrence, KS: Academy Press of Kansas, 2009.
  • Mowry, George Eastward.
    The Era of Theodore Roosevelt and the Birth of Modern America. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.
  • Painter, Carl, “The Progressive Party In Indiana”,
    Indiana Magazine of History, vol. 16, no. 3 (Sept. 1920), pp. 173–283. JSTOR 27785944.
  • Pietrusza, David, “TR’s Concluding War: Theodore Roosevelt, the Groovy War, and a Journey of Triumph and Tragedy”. (Guilford [CT]: Lyons Press, 2018).
  • Pinchot, Amos.
    What’southward the Matter with America: The Meaning of the Progressive Movement and the Rising of the New Party. n.c.: Amos Pinchot, 1912.
  • Pinchot, Amos.
    History of the Progressive Political party, 1912–1916. Introduction past Helene Maxwell Hooker. (New York University Press, 1958).
  • Roosevelt, Theodore.
    Bull Moose on the Stump: The 1912 Campaign Speeches of Theodore Roosevelt
    Ed. Lewis L. Gould. (UP of Kansas, 2008).
  • Selmi, Patrick. “Jane Addams and the Progressive Party Campaign for President in 1912”.
    Journal of Progressive Human Services
    22.two (2011): 160–190.

External links

[edit]

  • editorial cartoons Archived February xv, 2020, at the Wayback Auto
  • TeddyRoosevelt.com: Bull Moose Data
  • 1912 platform of the Progressive Party Archived September 22, 2011, at the Wayback Car
  • 1912 Progressive Party platform
    at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)



Why Did Theodore Roosevelt Start His Own Political Party

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Party_%28United_States,_1912%29

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