Which Statements About the Agricultural Revolution Are True

Mid-17th to 19th century revolution centred effectually agriculture

The
British Agricultural Revolution, or
2d Agricultural Revolution, was an unprecedented increase in agricultural output in Britain arising from increases in labour and country productivity between the mid-17th and late 19th centuries. Agricultural output grew faster than the population over the hundred-year period ending in 1770, and thereafter productivity remained amidst the highest in the globe. This increment in the food supply contributed to the rapid growth of population in England and Wales, from 5.five 1000000 in 1700 to over nine million by 1801, though domestic product gave way increasingly to nutrient imports in the nineteenth century every bit the population more than than tripled to over 35 million.[1]
Using 1700 every bit a base year (=100), agricultural output per agricultural worker in Britain steadily increased from nigh l in 1500, to effectually 65 in 1550, to ninety in 1600, to over 100 past 1650, to over 150 by 1750, rapidly increasing to over 250 by 1850.[two]
The rise in productivity accelerated the decline of the agricultural share of the labour strength, calculation to the urban workforce on which industrialization depended: the Agricultural Revolution has therefore been cited as a cause of the Industrial Revolution.

However, historians continue to dispute when exactly such a “revolution” took place and of what it consisted. Rather than a unmarried issue, G. E. Mingay states that there were a “profusion of agronomical revolutions, ane for two centuries before 1650, another emphasising the century after 1650, a third for the menses 1750–1780, and a fourth for the heart decades of the nineteenth century”.[three]
This has led more contempo historians to argue that any general statements well-nigh “the Agricultural Revolution” are difficult to sustain.[4]
[5]

One important change in farming methods was the motility in crop rotation to turnips and clover in place of fallow. Turnips can be grown in winter and are deep-rooted, allowing them to assemble minerals unavailable to shallow-rooted crops. Clover fixes nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form of fertiliser. This permitted the intensive arable cultivation of low-cal soils on enclosed farms and provided fodder to back up increased livestock numbers whose manure added farther to soil fertility.

Major developments and innovations

[edit]

The British Agronomical Revolution was the result of the complex interaction of social, economical and farming technological changes. Major developments and innovations include:[half dozen]

  • Norfolk iv-course crop rotation: Provender crops, particularly turnips and clover, replaced leaving the land fallow.[7]
  • The Dutch improved the Chinese turn so that it could be pulled with fewer oxen or horses.
  • Enclosure: the removal of common rights to establish exclusive buying of land
  • Development of a national marketplace free of tariffs, tolls and community barriers
  • Transportation infrastructures, such as improved roads, canals, and subsequently, railways
  • Land conversion, land drains and reclamation
  • Increase in farm size
  • Selective breeding

Crop rotation

[edit]

Crop Yield net of Seed
(bushels/acre)[8]
Year Wheat Rye Barley Oats Peas
beans
Growth rate
(%/year)$
1250–1299 8.71 10.71 10.25 7.24 6.03 −0.27
1300–1349 8.24 10.36 9.46 6.threescore 6.fourteen −0.032
1350–1399 7.46 9.21 nine.74 7.49 5.86 0.61
1400–1449 5.89 10.46 8.44 6.55 v.42 0.08
1450–1499 6.48 thirteen.96 eight.56 5.95 4.49 0.48
1550–1599 seven.88 9.21 eight.40 vii.87 7.62 −0.16
1600–1649 x.45 16.28 11.16 x.97 8.62 −0.11
1650–1699 11.36 14.nineteen 12.48 ten.82 8.39 0.64
1700–1749 thirteen.79 14.82 15.08 12.27 x.23 0.70
1750–1799 17.26 17.87 21.88 20.90 14.19 0.37
1800–1849 23.xvi xix.52 25.90 28.37 17.85 0.63
1850–1899 26.69 26.18 23.82 31.36 16.30
Notes:

Yields accept had the seed used to plant the crop subtracted to requite internet yields.

Average seed sown is estimated at:

  • Wheat ii.5 bu/acre;
  • Rye 2.5 bu/acre;
  • Barley 3.five–4.xxx bu/acre;
  • Oats 2.5–4.0 bu/acre;
  • Peas & beans 2.50–3.0 bu/acre.

$ Boilerplate annual growth rate of farm production is per agricultural worker.

Other authors offering different estimates.

One of the nearly important innovations of the British Agricultural Revolution was the development of the Norfolk four-grade rotation, which greatly increased crop and livestock yields by improving soil fertility and reducing fallow.[6]

Ingather rotation is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons to assistance restore found nutrients and mitigate the build-up of pathogens and pests that often occurs when one plant species is continuously cropped. Rotation tin can as well improve soil construction and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Turnip roots, for example, can recover nutrients from deep under the soil. The Norfolk four-course organization, every bit it is at present known, rotates crops and so that dissimilar crops are planted with the result that unlike kinds and quantities of nutrients are taken from the soil as the plants grow. An important feature of the Norfolk four-field system was that it used labour at times when demand was non at height levels.[nine]

Planting cover crops such as turnips and clover was not permitted under the mutual field system because they interfered with admission to the fields. Besides, other people’due south livestock could graze the turnips.[10]

During the Middle Ages, the open field system had initially used a two-field ingather rotation arrangement where 1 field was left fallow or turned into pasture for a time to try to recover some of its institute nutrients. Later they employed a iii-year, three field crop rotation routine, with a different crop in each of two fields, e.thousand. oats, rye, wheat, and barley with the 2nd field growing a legume like peas or beans, and the tertiary field dormant. Unremarkably from 10% to 30% of the arable land in a three crop rotation system is dormant. Each field was rotated into a different crop nearly every twelvemonth. Over the following two centuries, the regular planting of legumes such as peas and beans in the fields that were previously fallow slowly restored the fertility of some croplands. The planting of legumes helped to increase establish growth in the empty field due to the ability of the leaner on legume roots to gear up nitrogen (North2) from the air into the soil in a form that plants could use. Other crops that were occasionally grown were flax and members of the mustard family.

Convertible husbandry was the alternation of a field betwixt pasture and grain. Because nitrogen builds up slowly over fourth dimension in pasture, ploughing upwardly pasture and planting grains resulted in high yields for a few years. A large disadvantage of convertible husbandry was the hard piece of work in breaking upward pastures and difficulty in establishing them. The significance of convertible husbandry is that information technology introduced pasture into the rotation.[11]

The farmers in Flanders (in parts of France and current twenty-four hours Belgium) discovered a yet more effective four-field crop rotation organisation, using turnips and clover (a legume) as forage crops to replace the 3-year crop rotation fallow year.

The four-field rotation system allowed farmers to restore soil fertility and restore some of the plant nutrients removed with the crops. Turnips beginning show up in the probate records in England as early as 1638 but were not widely used till about 1750. Fallow land was nearly 20% of the abundant area in England in 1700 earlier turnips and clover were extensively grown in the 1830s. Guano and nitrates from South America were introduced in the mid-19th century and fallow steadily declined to reach but about iv% in 1900.[12]
Ideally, wheat, barley, turnips and clover would be planted in that guild in each field in successive years. The turnips helped keep the weeds down and were an first-class forage crop—ruminant animals could eat their tops and roots through a big office of the summer and winters. There was no need to let the soil lie fallow every bit clover would re-add together nitrates (nitrogen-containing salts) dorsum to the soil. The clover made excellent pasture and hay fields as well equally dark-green manure when it was ploughed under later on one or two years. The addition of clover and turnips allowed more animals to be kept through the winter, which in turn produced more than milk, cheese, meat and manure, which maintained soil fertility. This maintains a good corporeality of crops produced.

The mix of crops as well inverse: the area under wheat rose by 1870 to 3.v 1000000 acres (1.4m ha), barley to ii.25m acres (0.9m ha) and oats less dramatically to 2.75m acres (1.1m ha), while rye dwindled to 60,000 acres (25,000 ha), less than a tenth of its late medieval peak. Grain yields benefited from new and ameliorate seed alongside improved rotation and fertility: wheat yields increased by a quarter in the 18th century[thirteen]
and nearly one-half in the 19th, averaging 30 bushels per acre (2,080 kg/ha) by the 1890s.


The Dutch and Rotherham swing (bicycle-less) plough

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The Dutch acquired the iron-tipped, curved mouldboard, adjustable depth plough from the Chinese in the early 17th century. It had the advantage of being able to be pulled past 1 or two oxen compared to the 6 or eight needed by the heavy wheeled northern European plow. The Dutch plough was brought to Great britain by Dutch contractors who were hired to drain East Anglian fens and Somerset moors. The plow was extremely successful on wet, boggy soil, but was shortly used on ordinary state.[14]
[15]

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British improvements included Joseph Foljambe’s cast fe turn (patented 1730), which combined an earlier Dutch design with a number of innovations. Its fittings and coulter were made of iron and the mouldboard and share were covered with an iron plate, making it easier to pull and more controllable than previous ploughs. Past the 1760s Foljambe was making large numbers of these ploughs in a factory outside of Rotherham, England, using standard patterns with interchangeable parts. The plough was easy for a blacksmith to make, simply by the end of the 18th century it was beingness fabricated in rural foundries.[15]
[16]
[17]
By 1770 it was the cheapest and all-time plow available. It spread to Scotland, America, and France.[fifteen]

New crops

[edit]

The Columbian exchange brought many new foodstuffs from the Americas to Eurasia, most of which took decades or centuries to grab on. Arguably the nigh important of these was the potato. Potatoes yielded about three times the calories per acre of wheat or barley, due in large part to only taking 3–4 months to mature versus 10 months for wheat. On top of this, potatoes had higher nutritive value than wheat, could be grown in fifty-fifty fallow and nutrient-poor soil, did not crave any special tools, and were considered adequately appetizing. According to Langer, a single acre of potatoes could feed a family unit of 5 or six, plus a moo-cow, for the amend part of a year, an unprecedented level of production. Past 1715 the potato was widespread in the Low Countries, the Rhineland, Southwestern Frg, and Eastern France, but took a niggling bit to spread elsewhere.[18]

The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, established in 1660, most immediately championed the irish potato, stressing its value every bit a substitute for wheat (specially since famine periods for wheat overlapped with bump periods for potatoes). The 1740 famines buttressed their case.[xix]
The mid 18th century was marked past rapid adoption of the spud past various European countries, specially in central Europe, as various wheat famines demonstrated its value. The potato was grown in Ireland, a holding of the English crown and common source of food exports, since the early 17th century and quickly spread so that past the 18th century it had been firmly established as a staple nutrient. It spread to England before long afterwards information technology popped upward in Ireland, outset beingness widely cultivated in Lancashire and effectually London, and by the mid-18th century information technology was esteemed and mutual. By the late 18th century, Sir Frederick Eden wrote that the spud had become “a abiding continuing dish, at every meal, breakfast excepted, at the tables of the Rich, as well equally the Poor.”[20]

While not as vital as the spud, maize also contributed to the boost of Western European agricultural productivity. Maize also had far higher per-acre productivity than wheat (about two and a half times),[21]
grew at widely differing altitudes and in a variety of soils (though warmer climates were preferred), and dissimilar wheat it could exist harvested in successive years from the same plot of land. It was often grown aslope potatoes, as maize plants required wide spacing. Maize was cultivated in Spain since 1525 and Italy since 1530, contributing to their growing populations in the early modern era every bit it became a dietary staple in the 17th century (in Italy it was often made into Polenta). It spread from northern Italia into Deutschland and beyond, becoming an of import staple in the Habsburg monarchy (especially Hungary and Austria) by the tardily 17th century. Its spread started in southern France in 1565, and by the offset of the 18th century, it was the master nutrient source of central and southern French peasants (it was more than popular equally beast fodder in the north).[22]

Enclosure

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Conjectural map of a mediaeval English manor. The function allocated to “mutual pasture” is shown in the north-east section, shaded green.

In Europe, agronomics was feudal from the Heart Ages. In the traditional open field organisation, many subsistence farmers cropped strips of state in large fields held in mutual and divided the produce. They typically worked under the auspices of the aristocracy or the Catholic Church building, who owned much of the state.

Equally early on as the 12th century, some fields in England tilled nether the open field system were enclosed into individually endemic fields. The Black Death from 1348 onward accelerated the break-upwards of the feudal system in England.[23]
Many farms were bought past yeomen who enclosed their property and improved their use of the country. More secure control of the land immune the owners to make innovations that improved their yields. Other husbandmen rented property they “share cropped” with the land owners. Many of these enclosures were achieved by acts of Parliament in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The process of enclosing property accelerated in the 15th and 16th centuries. The more productive enclosed farms meant that fewer farmers were needed to work the same country, leaving many villagers without state and grazing rights. Many of them moved to the cities in search of work in the emerging factories of the Industrial Revolution. Others settled in the English colonies. English Poor Laws were enacted to help these newly poor.

Some practices of enclosure were denounced by the Church building, and legislation was drawn up against it; but the big, enclosed fields were needed for the gains in agricultural productivity from the 16th to 18th centuries. This controversy led to a series of authorities acts, culminating in the General Enclosure Human activity of 1801 which sanctioned large-calibration state reform.

The process of enclosure was largely complete by the end of the 18th century.

Development of a national market

[edit]

Regional markets were widespread by 1500 with about 800 locations in Great britain. The almost of import development between the 16th century and the mid-19th century was the evolution of individual marketing. By the 19th century, marketing was nationwide and the vast majority of agricultural output was for market place rather than for the farmer and his family. The 16th-century market radius was almost 10 miles, which could back up a town of 10,000.[24]

The next stage of evolution was trading between markets, requiring merchants, credit and forward sales, knowledge of markets and pricing and of supply and demand in different markets. Eventually, the market evolved into a national i driven by London and other growing cities. By 1700, in that location was a national market for wheat.

Legislation regulating middlemen required registration, addressed weights and measures, fixing of prices and drove of tolls by the government. Market regulations were eased in 1663 when people were allowed some self-regulation to hold inventory, only it was forbidden to withhold commodities from the market place in an endeavor to increase prices. In the late 18th century, the idea of cocky-regulation was gaining acceptance.[25]

The lack of internal tariffs, customs barriers and feudal tolls made Britain “the largest coherent market in Europe”.[26]

Transportation infrastructures

[edit]

High wagon transportation costs fabricated it uneconomical to ship bolt very far outside the market radius by road, generally limiting shipment to less than 20 or 30 miles to market or to a navigable waterway. H2o transport was, and in some cases still is, much more efficient than land send. In the early 19th century it toll every bit much to transport a ton of freight 32 miles by wagon over an unimproved road as information technology did to transport it 3000 miles across the Atlantic.[27]
A equus caballus could pull at most one ton of freight on a Macadam road, which was multi-layer rock covered and crowned, with side drainage. But a single horse could pull a barge weighing over 30 tons.

Commerce was aided past the expansion of roads and inland waterways. Road ship chapters grew from threefold to fourfold from 1500 to 1700.[28]
[29]

Railroads would eventually reduce the price of state transport by over 95%.


Country conversion, drainage and reclamation

[edit]

Another mode to get more land was to convert some pasture land into arable land and recover fen country and some pastures. It is estimated that the corporeality of arable land in United kingdom grew by 10–30% through these land conversions.

The British Agricultural Revolution was aided by land maintenance advancements in Flanders and holland. Due to the large and dense population of Flemish region and The netherlands, farmers there were forced to take maximum advantage of every bit of usable land; the state had become a pioneer in canal building, soil restoration and maintenance, soil drainage, and land reclamation applied science. Dutch experts like Cornelius Vermuyden brought some of this applied science to United kingdom.

Water-meadows were utilised in the late 16th to the 20th centuries and allowed earlier pasturing of livestock after they were wintered on hay. This increased livestock yields, giving more hides, meat, milk, and manure likewise as better hay crops.

Ascension in domestic farmers

[edit]

With the development of regional markets and somewhen a national market, aided by improved transportation infrastructures, farmers were no longer dependent on their local market and were less discipline to having to sell at depression prices into an oversupplied local market place and not being able to sell their surpluses to distant localities that were experiencing shortages. They also became less field of study to price fixing regulations. Farming became a business organization rather than solely a means of subsistence.[30]

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Nether free-market capitalism, farmers had to remain competitive. To exist successful, farmers had to become effective managers who incorporated the latest farming innovations in order to be low cost producers.

Human Capital Effects

[edit]

During the 18th century, a high share of farmers had the power to basic numerical skills as well as the ability to read and write (literacy), both of which are skills that were far from widespread in the early mod menses. This is unsurprising for countries such as England, where farmers developed peculiarly high homo capital skills because of rapid occupational changes – they became a minority that produced the food for the majority of the population. However, the ‘farmer effect’ of loftier human capital amid farmers applies both to the center and the periphery of Europe. One possible explanation for this miracle is that a constant amount of diet was almost always bachelor to farmer families. They could feed themselves even during times of dearth by increasing the share of their products that they consumed themselves instead of selling them on markets. There is a potent link betwixt nutritional deprivation and cognitive abilities, therefore it seems likely that farmers were one of the groups of society that contributed significantly to the numeracy revolution accomplished in Europe during the early modern era.[31]
[2]

Selective breeding of livestock

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In England, Robert Bakewell and Thomas Coke introduced selective breeding as a scientific practice, mating together two animals with specially desirable characteristics, and as well using inbreeding or the mating of close relatives, such as male parent and daughter, or brother and sister, to stabilise certain qualities in order to reduce genetic diverseness in desirable beast programmes from the mid-18th century. Arguably, Bakewell’s most of import breeding programme was with sheep. Using native stock, he was able to chop-chop select for big, even so fine-boned sheep, with long, lustrous wool. The Lincoln Longwool was improved by Bakewell, and in turn the Lincoln was used to develop the subsequent breed, named the New (or Dishley) Leicester. It was hornless and had a square, meaty body with straight top lines.[32]

Bakewell was besides the first to brood cattle to be used primarily for beef. Previously, cattle were first and foremost kept for pulling ploughs as oxen or for dairy uses, with beef from surplus males equally an additional bonus, but he crossed long-horned heifers and a Westmoreland bull to somewhen create the Dishley Longhorn. Equally more and more than farmers followed his lead, farm animals increased dramatically in size and quality. The boilerplate weight of a bull sold for slaughter at Smithfield was reported effectually 1700 as 370 pounds (170 kg), though this is considered a low approximate: by 1786, weights of 840 pounds (380 kg) were reported,[33]
[34]
though other contemporary indicators suggest an increase of effectually a quarter over the intervening century.

In 1300, the boilerplate milk cow produced 100 gallons of milk annually. This effigy rose throughout the early on mod era. The average in 1400-1449 was 140; in 1450-1499 162; in 1550-1599 212; in 1600-1649 243; in 1650-1699 272; in 1700-1749 319; in 1750-1799 366; and in 1800-1849 420. Beef output per beast rose even faster, from 168 lbs in 1300, to 251 in 1450-1499, to 317 in 1550-1599, 356 in 1600-1649, 400 in 1650-1699, 449 in 1700-1749, 504 in 1750-1799, and 566 in 1800-1849.[35]


British agriculture, 1800–1900

[edit]

Likewise the organic fertilisers in manure, new fertilisers were slowly discovered. Massive sodium nitrate (NaNO3) deposits found in the Atacama Desert, Republic of chile, were brought under British financiers like John Thomas North and imports were started. Republic of chile was happy to let the exports of these sodium nitrates past allowing the British to use their capital letter to develop the mining and imposing a hefty export tax to enrich their treasury. Massive deposits of bounding main bird guano (xi–16% N, 8–12% phosphate, and 2–3% potash), were found and started to be imported after nearly 1830. Pregnant imports of potash obtained from the ashes of copse burned in opening new agricultural lands were imported. By-products of the British meat industry like bones from the knackers’ yards were ground upwards or crushed and sold as fertiliser. By near 1840 nigh 30,000 tons of bones were being processed (worth about £150,000). An unusual alternative to bones was found to be the millions of tons of fossils called coprolites found in Southward East England. When these were dissolved in sulphuric acid they yielded a high phosphate mixture (chosen “super phosphate”) that plants could absorb readily and increased ingather yields. Mining coprolite and processing it for fertiliser shortly developed into a major manufacture—the first commercial fertiliser.[36]
College yield per acre crops were also planted as potatoes went from about 300,000 acres in 1800 to about 400,000 acres in 1850 with a further increase to nearly 500,000 in 1900.[37]
Labour productivity slowly increased at about 0.6% per year. With more capital letter invested, more organic and inorganic fertilisers, and better ingather yields increased the food grown at near 0.5%/year—not enough to continue upward with population growth.

United kingdom contained about 10.viii million people in 1801, 20.7 million in 1851 and 37.1 one thousand thousand past 1901. This corresponds to an annual population growth rate of 1.3% in 1801-1851 and 1.2% in 1851–1901, twice the rate of agricultural output growth.[38]
In addition to land for cultivation in that location was too a demand for pasture state to back up more livestock. The growth of arable acreage slowed from the 1830s and went into reverse from the 1870s in the face of cheaper grain imports, and wheat acreage nearly halved from 1870 to 1900.[39]

The recovery of food imports after the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) and the resumption of American merchandise following the State of war of 1812 (1812–1815) led to the enactment in 1815 of the Corn Laws (protective tariffs) to protect cereal grain producers in Britain confronting foreign contest. These laws were only removed in 1846 after the onset of the Great Irish Famine in which a potato blight[40]
ruined most of the Irish gaelic potato ingather and brought famine to the Irish people from 1846 to 1850.[41]
Though the bane also struck Scotland, Wales, England, and much of Continental Europe, its effect there was far less severe since potatoes constituted a much smaller percentage of the nutrition than in Ireland. Hundreds of thousands died in the famine and millions more emigrated to England, Wales, Scotland, Canada, Australia, Europe, and the United states, reducing the population from about 8.five million in 1845 to four.3 meg by 1921.[42]

Between 1873 and 1879 British agriculture suffered from moisture summers that damaged grain crops. Cattle farmers were hit past foot-and-oral fissure disease, and sheep farmers by sheep liver rot. The poor harvests, however, masked a greater threat to British agronomics: growing imports of foodstuffs from abroad. The evolution of the steam ship and the development of extensive railway networks in Britain and in the United States allowed U.S. farmers with much larger and more productive farms to export difficult grain to Britain at a price that undercut the British farmers. At the same time, large amounts of cheap corned beef started to get in from Argentine republic, and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the development of refrigerator ships (reefers) in virtually 1880 opened the British market to inexpensive meat and wool from Australia, New Zealand, and Argentina. The Long Depression was a worldwide economic recession that began in 1873 and ended around 1896. It hit the agricultural sector difficult and was the almost severe in Europe and the Us, which had been experiencing strong economical growth fuelled by the 2nd Industrial Revolution in the decade following the American Civil War. By 1900, half the meat eaten in Uk came from abroad and tropical fruits such every bit bananas were also being imported on the new refrigerator ships.

Seed planting

[edit]

Before the introduction of the seed drill, the common practice was to constitute seeds by dissemination (evenly throwing) them across the ground by hand on the prepared soil and so lightly harrowing the soil to embrace the seed. Seeds left on top of the ground were eaten by birds, insects, and mice. There was no command over spacing and seeds were planted too shut together and too far apart. Alternatively, seeds could be laboriously planted one by one using a hoe and/or a shovel. Cutting down on wasted seed was of import because the yield of seeds harvested to seeds planted at that time was around four or v.

The seed drill was introduced from China to Italy in the mid-16th century where it was patented past the Venetian Senate.[43]
Jethro Tull invented an improved seed drill in 1701. It was a mechanical seeder which distributed seeds evenly beyond a plot of country and at the correct depth. Tull’s seed drill was very expensive and frail and therefore did not have much of an impact.[44]
The technology to manufacture affordable and reliable machinery, including farm machinery, improved dramatically in the last one-half of the 19th century.[45]

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Significance

[edit]

The Agricultural Revolution was function of a long procedure of comeback, but sound advice on farming began to appear in England in the mid-17th century, from writers such as Samuel Hartlib, Walter Blith and others,[46]
and the overall agricultural productivity of Britain started to grow significantly only in the period of the Agricultural Revolution. It is estimated that total agricultural output grew 2.seven-fold between 1700 and 1870 and output per worker at a similar rate.

Despite its name, the Agricultural Revolution in Britain did non result in overall productivity per hectare of agricultural area as high equally in Red china, where intensive cultivation (including multiple annual cropping in many areas) had been practiced for many centuries.[47]
[48]

The Agricultural Revolution in Britain proved to exist a major turning point in history, allowing the population to far exceed earlier peaks and sustain the state’s rise to industrial pre-eminence. Towards the end of the 19th century, the substantial gains in British agronomical productivity were apace offset past competition from cheaper imports, made possible past the exploitation of new lands and advances in transportation, refrigeration, and other technologies.

Encounter also

[edit]

  • Agriculture in the Uk#History
  • Scottish Agricultural Revolution

References

[edit]


  1. ^


    Richards, Denis; Hunt, J.W. (1983).
    An Illustrated History of Modernistic Britain: 1783–1980
    (3rd ed.). Hong Kong: Longman Group UK LTD. p. vii. ISBN978-0-582-33130-iii.


  2. ^


    a




    b



    Broadberry et al 2008, p. 52, effigy 14.

  3. ^

    G. Due east. Mingay (ed.) (1977),
    The Agricultural Revolution: Changes in Agriculture 1650–1880, p. iii

  4. ^

    Peter Jones (2016),
    Agronomical Enlightenment: Knowledge, Technology, and Nature, 1750–1840, p. 7

  5. ^

    Come across also Joel Mokry (2009),
    The Enlightened Economy: Great britain and the Industrial Revolution 1700–1850, p. 173
  6. ^


    a




    b



    Overton 1996, p. ane
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  7. ^

    R. W. Sturgess, “The Agronomical Revolution on the English Clays.”
    Agricultural History Review
    (1966): 104-121. in JSTOIR

  8. ^


    Apostolides, Alexander; Broadberry, Stephen; Campbell, Bruce; Overton, Marking; van Leeuwen, Bas (26 November 2008). “English Agronomical Output and Labour Productivity, 1250–1850: Some Preliminary Estimates”
    (PDF)
    . Retrieved
    1 May
    2019
    .



  9. ^

    Overton 1996, p. 117
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (assist)


  10. ^

    Overton 1996, p. 167
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (aid)


  11. ^

    Overton 1996, pp. 116, 117
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (help)


  12. ^


    Overton, Mark (17 Feb 2011). “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850”. British History. BBC History. Retrieved
    1 May
    2019
    .



  13. ^

    Overton 1996, p. 77.
    sfn error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (aid)


  14. ^

    Overton 1996
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (assist)

  15. ^


    a




    b




    c



    Temple 1986, pp. 18, 20

  16. ^


    “The Rotherham Plough”. Rotherham: The Unofficial Website. Archived from the original on 14 Baronial 2014. Retrieved
    17 May
    2017
    .



  17. ^


    “The Rotherham Plough”. Rotherham.co.united kingdom. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved
    17 May
    2017
    .



  18. ^

    William 50. Langer, “American Foods and Europe’due south Population Growth 1750–1850”, Journal of Social History, 8#two (1975), pp. 51–66. Pages 52-54.

  19. ^

    Langer, p. 54.

  20. ^

    Langer, p. 56-58.

  21. ^

    Marion Eugene Ensminger and Audrey H. Ensminger. “Foods & Nutrition Encyclopedia, Two Volume Set.” CRC-Printing: 1994. Page 1104.

  22. ^

    Langer, p. 58-60.

  23. ^


    Landes, David S. (1969).
    The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Modify and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN978-0-521-09418-4.



  24. ^

    Overton 1996, pp. 134–6
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (assistance)


  25. ^

    Overton 1996, pp. 135, 145
    harvnb error: no target: CITEREFOverton1996 (help)


  26. ^


    Landes, David. S. (1969).
    The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Nowadays. Cambridge, New York: Printing Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. p. 46. ISBN978-0-521-09418-four.



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    Baten, Jörg; Tollnek, Franziska (2017). “Farmers at the Eye of the “Human Capital letter Revolution”? Decomposing the Numeracy Increase in Early on Mod Europe”.
    The Economical History Review.
    lxx
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    {{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)


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    The Genius of China: 3000 years of science, discovery and invention
    . New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 26. ISBN9780671620288Temple estimates Chinese crop yields were between ten and twenty times higher than in the W. This is non the case. Perkins finds an average Chinese grain yield about twice the tardily 18th-century European average. China’s reward was in intensive land utilise and high labour inputs, rather than in private crop yields (except for rice, suited only to some parts of Mediterranean Europe).



    {{cite volume}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)

Further reading

[edit]

  • Ang, James B., Rajabrata Banerjee, and Jakob B. Madsen. “Innovation and productivity advances in British agriculture: 1620–1850”.
    Southern Economic Journal
    80.1 (2013): 162–186.
  • Campbell, Bruce M. South., and Marking Overton. “A new perspective on medieval and early modern agriculture: six centuries of Norfolk farming c. 1250-c. 1850.”
    Past and Present
    (1993): 38-105. JSTOR 651030.
  • Clark, Gregory. “Too much revolution: Agronomics in the industrial revolution, 1700–1860”. In
    The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective
    (second ed. 1999) pp. 206–240.
  • Dodd, William (1847).

    The Laboring Classes of England : specially those engaged in agriculture and articles; in a series of messages
    . Boston: John Putnam.

  • Fletcher, T. Westward. “The Corking Depression of English Agriculture 1873–1896”.
    Economical History Review
    (1961) 13#3 pp: 417–432. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0289.1961.tb02128.x.
  • Harrison, L. F. C. (1989).
    The Common People, a History from the Norman Conquest to the Present. Glasgow: Fontana. ISBN978-0-00-686163-8.

  • Hoyle, Richard W., ed. (2013).
    The Farmer in England, 1650–1980. Ashgate.

  • Jones, E. Fifty. “The Agricultural Labour Market in England, 1793-1872.”
    Economic History Review
    17#2 1964, pp. 322–338. online
  • Kerridge, Eric (2005) [1967].
    The Agricultural Revolution. Routledge.

  • Mingay, Gordon E. “The ‘Agronomical Revolution’ in English History: A Reconsideration”.
    Agricultural History
    (1963): 123–133. JSTOR 3740366.
  • Mingay, Gordon E. (1977).
    The Agricultural Revolution: Changes in Agriculture, 1650–1880. (Documents in Economic History.) Adam & Charles Black. ISBN 0713617039.
  • Niermeier-Dohoney, Justin. (2018).
    A Vital Matter: Alchemy, Cornucopianism, and Agricultural Comeback in Seventeenth-Century England,
    The University of Chicago.
  • Overton, Mark (1996a).

    Agricultural Revolution in England: The transformation of the agrarian economy 1500-1850
    . Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-56859-iii.

  • Overton, Marker (2002).

    Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850
    . Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-56859-3.

  • Snell, Thou. D. M. (1985).
    Annals of the Labouring Poor, Social Modify and Agrarian England 1660–1900. Cambridge, Britain: Cambridge University Printing. ISBN978-0-521-24548-7.

  • Taylor, George Rogers (1969) [1951].
    The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860. The Economic History of the United States: Vol. 4. Armonk, NY: K. E. Sharpe. ISBN9780873321013. OCLC 963968247.

  • Temple, Robert (1986).
    The Genius of China: 3000 Years of Scientific discipline, Discovery and Invention. Simon and Schuster.

  • Thirsk, Joan (2004).
    “Blith, Walter (bap. 1605, d. 1654)”.
    Oxford Lexicon of National Biography
    (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2655.


    (Subscription or United kingdom public library membership required.)

Historiography

[edit]

  • Robert C. Allen. “Tracking the Agricultural Revolution in England”.
    Economic History Review
    (1999) 52#two pp. 209–235. doi:10.1111/1468-0289.00123.
  • Overton, Marking (1996b). “Re-establishing the English Agronomical Revolution”.
    Agricultural History Review.
    44
    (1): 1–20. JSTOR 40275062.

External links

[edit]

  • “Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850″—BBC History



Which Statements About the Agricultural Revolution Are True

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Agricultural_Revolution

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