Which Statement Best Describes a Stream With a Steep Gradient

Which Statement Best Describes a Stream With a Steep Gradient

Affiliate 13 Streams and Floods

thirteen.four Stream Types

Stream channels tin can exist direct or curved, deep and tiresome, or rapid and choked with coarse sediments. The bicycle of erosion has some influence on the nature of a stream, but there are several other factors that are important.

Figure xiii.four.1 The Cascade Falls expanse of the Kettle River, nearly Christina Lake, B.C. This stream has a stride-pool morphology and a deep bedrock channel.


that are actively down-cut their channels tend to be relatively straight and are typically ungraded (meaning that rapids and falls are common). As shown in Figures thirteen.0.1 and xiii.4.one, youthful streams commonly accept a

morphology, significant that the stream consists of a serial of pools connected by rapids and waterfalls. They likewise have steep gradients and steep and narrow V-shaped valleys—in some cases steep plenty to be chosen canyons.

In mountainous terrain, such as that in western Alberta and B.C., steep youthful streams typically flow into wide and relatively depression-gradient U-shaped glaciated valleys. The youthful streams have high sediment loads, and when they flow into the lower-gradient glacial valleys where the velocity isn’t high enough to carry all of the sediment
patterns develop, characterized past a series of narrow channels separated by gravel confined (Figure 13.4.ii).

Figure 13.4.two The braided channel of the Boot Horse River at Field, B.C.
Figure xiii.4.three The braided channel of Meager Creek in the Mt. Meager area

Braided streams tin develop anywhere there is more sediment than a stream is able to ship. One such environment is in volcanic regions, where explosive eruptions produce large amounts of unconsolidated textile that gets washed into streams. Streams in the volcanic Mt. Meager area of southwestern British Columbia are adept examples of this (Effigy 13.4.3).

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A stream that occupies a wide, flat flood plain with a low gradient typically carries but sand-sized and effectively sediments and develops a sinuous menstruation design. As you saw in Figure 13.3.1, when a stream flows around a corner, the water on the outside has further to get and tends to menstruation faster. This leads to erosion of the banks on the outside of the curve, deposition on the inside, and germination of a point bar (Figure 13.4.4). Over time, the sinuosity of the stream becomes increasingly exaggerated, and the aqueduct migrates around within its alluvion plain, forming a

design.

Figure 13.four.4 The meandering channel of the Bonnell Creek, Nanoose, B.C. The stream is flowing toward the viewer. The sand and gravel betoken bar must have formed when the creek was higher and the flow faster than information technology was when the photo was taken.

A well-developed meandering river is shown in Figure thirteen.4.5. The meander in the middle of the photo has reached the point where the sparse neck of land betwixt two parts of the channel is well-nigh to exist eroded through. When this happens, some other

lake will course similar the others in the photo.

Figure 13.4.v The meandering aqueduct of the Nowitna River, Alaska. Numerous oxbow lakes are present and another meander cutoff volition soon take identify. [Prototype Description]
Figure 13.4.6 Elevations on Priest Creek at Kelowna, BC.

Slope is the key factor decision-making stream velocity, and of course, velocity controls sediment erosion and degradation. This map shows the elevations of Priest Creek in the Kelowna surface area. The length of the creek betwixt 1,600 metres and 1,300 metres top is 2.4 kilometres, and so the gradient is 300/2.4 = 125 metres per kilometre.

  1. Use the scale bar to gauge the distance between one,300 metres and 600 metres and then calculate that gradient.
  2. Judge the gradient betwixt 600 and 400 metres.
  3. Estimate the gradient between 400 metres on Priest Creek and the bespeak where Mission Creek enters Okanagan Lake.

Run across Appendix three for Exercise xiii.iv answers.

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At the indicate where a stream enters a all the same body of water—a lake or the body of water—sediment is deposited and a delta forms. The Fraser River has created a large delta, which extends out into the Strait of Georgia (Figure xiii.iv.7). Much of the Fraser delta is very young in geological terms. Before long afterward the finish of the last glaciation (10,000 years ago), the delta did not extend past New Westminster. Since that time, all of the land that makes upward Richmond, Delta, and parts of New Westminster and s Surrey has formed from sediment from the Fraser River. (You can see this in more detail at Geoscape Vancouver.)

Effigy 13.four.7 The delta of the Fraser River and the plume of sediment that extends beyond the Strait of Georgia. The land outlined in ruby has formed over the by 10,000 years.

Paradigm Descriptions

Effigy 13.iv.5 image description:
A function of the Nowitna River has curved around and then sharply that it nearly forms a circle before curving the other way over again. Eventually, as the barrier betwixt these 2 parts of the channel erodes, they will be joined and form an oxbow lake. [Render to Figure 13.iv.5]

Media Attributions

  • Figures thirteen.4.1, 13.4.2, 13.4.4, 13.4.6: © Steven Earle. CC Past.
  • Figure thirteen.4.3: “Meager Creek” © Isaac Earle. CC Past.
  • Figure 13.4.five: “Nowitna river” by Oliver Kumis. CC By-SA.
  • Figure 13.iv.seven: Delta of the Fraser River by NASA. Taken September 2011. Adapted by Steven Earle. Public domain.

Which Statement Best Describes a Stream With a Steep Gradient

Source: https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/13-4-stream-types/

Originally posted 2022-08-01 04:02:52.

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