Which is the Best Description of a Roman Forum

Which is the Best Description of a Roman Forum.

Ancient Roman eye of the metropolis, a landmark of Rome, Italy

Roman Forum

Forum Romanum

Surviving structures: Tabularium, Gemonian stairs, Tarpeian Rock, Temple of Saturn, Temple of Vespasian and Titus, Arch of Septimius Severus, Curia Julia, Rostra, Basilica Aemilia, Forum Primary Square, Basilica Iulia, Temple of Caesar, Regia, Temple of Castor and Pollux, Temple of Vesta, Rostra Augusti, Omphalos Urbi, Milliarium Aureum, Lapis Niger, Basilica of Maxentius

Roman Forum is located in Rome

Roma Plan.jpg

Roman Forum

Roman Forum

Shown inside Augustan Rome

Click on the map for a fullscreen view

Location Central Rome
Region Lazio



41.89222°Due north 12.48528°E
41.89222; 12.48528




41.89222°N 12.48528°E
41.89222; 12.48528

Altitude thirteen m (43 ft)[1]
Type forum
Function of Ancient Rome
Area 2 ha (iv.ix acres)
Founded 8th century BC–AD 608
Abandoned Largely neglected from the 8th century Advertising onward
Cultures Roman Republic, Roman Empire
Site notes
Condition Most buildings in ruins
Public access Yes
Website parcocolosseo.information technology/en/area/the-roman-forum/
Architectural styles Ancient Roman architecture, Paleochristian architecture

Roman Forum, as well known by its Latin name
Forum Romanum
Foro Romano), is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the

Forum Magnum

, or simply the



For centuries the Forum was the center of day-to-day life in Rome: the site of triumphal processions and elections; the venue for public speeches, criminal trials, and gladiatorial matches; and the nucleus of commercial diplomacy. Here statues and monuments commemorated the metropolis’s great men. The teeming heart of ancient Rome, it has been called the well-nigh historic coming together place in the world, and in all history.[2]
Located in the minor valley between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, the Forum today is a sprawling ruin of architectural fragments and intermittent archaeological excavations attracting 4.5 one thousand thousand or more sightseers yearly.[3]

Many of the oldest and most important structures of the ancient city were located on or near the Forum. The Roman Kingdom’s earliest shrines and temples were located on the southeastern edge. These included the aboriginal former royal residence, the Regia (8th century BC), and the Temple of Vesta (7th century BC), likewise every bit the surrounding complex of the Vestal Virgins, all of which were rebuilt after the ascension of regal Rome.

Other archaic shrines to the northwest, such as the
Belly button Urbis
and the Vulcanal (Shrine of Vulcan), developed into the Republic’south formal Comitium (assembly area). This is where the Senate—equally well as Republican authorities itself—began. The Senate Business firm, government offices, tribunals, temples, memorials and statues gradually cluttered the area.

Over fourth dimension the primitive Comitium was replaced by the larger adjacent Forum and the focus of judicial activity moved to the new Basilica Aemilia (179 BC). Some 130 years afterward, Julius Caesar built the Basilica Julia, forth with the new Curia Julia, refocusing both the judicial offices and the Senate itself. This new Forum, in what proved to be its final form, so served as a revitalized city square where the people of Rome could gather for commercial, political, judicial and religious pursuits in ever greater numbers.

Eventually, much economic and judicial business would transfer away from the

Forum Romanum

to the larger and more extravagant structures (Trajan’s Forum and the Basilica Ulpia) to the northward. The reign of Constantine the Peachy saw the construction of the last major expansion of the Forum complex—the Basilica of Maxentius (312 Advertising). This returned the political center to the Forum until the autumn of the Western Roman Empire nearly 2 centuries later.



Unlike the later purple fora in Rome—which were self-consciously modelled on the ancient Greek
(πλατεῖα) public plaza or boondocks square—the Roman Forum adult gradually, organically, and piecemeal over many centuries.[4]
This is the case despite attempts, with some success, to impose some order there, by Sulla, Julius Caesar, Augustus and others. Past the Regal menses, the big public buildings that crowded around the central foursquare had reduced the open area to a rectangle of well-nigh 130 by l meters.[5]

Its long dimension was oriented northwest to southeast and extended from the human foot of the Capitoline Colina to that of the Velian Hill. The Forum’s basilicas during the Purple period—the Basilica Aemilia on the north and the Basilica Julia on the s—defined its long sides and its final form. The Forum proper included this foursquare, the buildings facing it and, sometimes, an additional area (the
Forum Adjectum) extending southeast every bit far as the Arch of Titus.[half-dozen]

Originally, the site of the Forum had been a marshy lake where waters from the surrounding hills drained.[7]
This was drained by the Tarquins with the Cloaca Maxima.[8]
Considering of its location, sediments from both the flooding of the Tiber and the erosion of the surrounding hills have been raising the level of the Forum floor for centuries. Excavated sequences of remains of paving show that sediment eroded from the surrounding hills was already raising the level in early Republican times.[9]

As the footing around buildings rose, residents just paved over the droppings that was as well much to remove. Its last travertine paving, all the same visible, dates from the reign of Augustus. Excavations in the 19th century revealed ane layer on top of another. The deepest level excavated was 3.60 meters above bounding main level. Archaeological finds testify human activity at that level with the discovery of carbonized forest.[
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An of import function of the Forum, during both Republican and Purple times, was to serve as the culminating venue for the celebratory armed services processions known as Triumphs. Victorious generals entered the city by the western Triumphal Gate (Porta Triumphalis) and circumnavigated the Palatine Hill (counterclockwise) before proceeding from the Velian Hill downwards the Via Sacra and into the Forum.[10]

From here they would mountain the Capitoline Rise (Clivus Capitolinus) up to the Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the elevation of the Capitol. Lavish public banquets ensued dorsum down on the Forum.[ten]
(In improver to the Via Sacra, the Forum was accessed by a number of storied roads and streets, including the Vicus Jugarius, Vicus Tuscus, Argiletum, and Via Nova.)



Pre-Roman Period


Pottery deposits discovered in the Forum, Palatine and Capitoline demonstrated that humans occupied these areas in the Concluding Statuary Age (1200–975 BC).[xi]
In the early on Iron Age an area of the time to come Forum, close to the site of Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, was used every bit a cemetery (10th century BC), possibly past the communities based on the Palatine and Capitoline hills.[12]
Most of the burials were cremations of the aforementioned type which is likewise found in the other sites in Latium. The urn containing the ashes of the deceased was placed inside a large earthenware jar, along with grave goods, and then buried in a cavity cut into the ground and covered with a capstone.[xiii]
In that location were besides a small-scale number of inhumation burials. On current evidence information technology is likely that burials in the Forum ceased some time in the late 9th century BC and that the Esquiline Necropolis replaced them.[14]

In the 8th century BC the outset archaeological finds on the sites of the key public buildings points to a transformation of the Forum from cemetery to public site.[fifteen]
Part of the Forum was paved over. The earliest finds in the sites of the Comitium and Vulcanal were voting offerings. They indicate that the expanse was defended to a celebration of religious cults.[16]

Roman Kingdom


A speculative map of Rome
 753 BC
showing the swampy situation of the early Forum between the Arx and Velia

Roman historical tradition


According to Roman historical tradition, the Forum’s ancestry are connected with the alliance between Romulus, the start king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, and his rival, Titus Tatius, who occupied the Capitoline Loma. An alliance formed subsequently combat had been halted past the prayers and cries of the Sabine women. Because the valley lay between the two settlements, it was the designated identify for the two peoples to meet. Since the early Forum area included pools of stagnant water, the near easily accessible expanse was the northern function of the valley which was designated as the Comitium. It was here at the Vulcanal that, according to the story, the 2 parties laid downwardly their weapons and formed an alliance.[17]

The Forum was outside the walls of the original Sabine fortress, which was entered through the Porta Saturni. These walls were mostly destroyed when the 2 hills were joined.[18]
The original Forum functioned as an open-air market abutting on the Comitium, but somewhen outgrew its mean solar day-to-day shopping and market place part. Every bit political speeches, ceremonious trials, and other public diplomacy began to take up more and more space in the Forum, boosted fora throughout the city began to emerge to expand on specific needs of the growing population. Fora for cattle, pork, vegetables and wine specialised in their niche products and the associated deities around them.[
citation needed

Rome’s second king, Numa Pompilius (r. 715–673 BC), is said to have begun the cult of Vesta, building its house and temple every bit well as the Regia equally the metropolis’s first imperial palace. Later Tullus Hostilius (r. 673–642 BC) enclosed the Comitium around the old Etruscan temple where the Senate would meet at the site of the Sabine conflict. He is said to have converted that temple into the Curia Hostilia shut to where the Senate originally met in an erstwhile Etruscan hut. In 600 BC Tarquinius Priscus had the surface area paved for the first time.[
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Archaeological testify


Fragment of a terracotta frieze plaque from the Regia at the east end of the Forum showing a minotaur and felines, c. 600–550 BC, Antiquarium Museo Del Foro Romano

Originally a low-lying, grassy wetland, the Forum was drained in the 7th century BC with the building of the first structures of Cloaca Maxima, a large covered sewer system that emptied into the Tiber, as more than people began to settle between the two hills. Archaeological evidence shows that by the end of the 7th century BC the ground level of the Forum was raised significantly in some places in order to overcome the problems of poor drainage and provide foundation for a pebble-paved area.[nineteen]
In the middle of the 7th century BC thatch-and-timber huts were demolished on the route of the Via Sacra and rectangular stone buildings began to replace them.[21]

The earliest structures in the Forum were discovered in ii separate locations: the site of the Comitium and the group of sanctuaries of Regia (House of the kings), House of the Vestals and Domus Publica.[23]
Effectually 650–630 BC the area of the Comitium was excavated into a deep triangular depression. The area was paved with a browbeaten globe pavement and later replaced with a more substantial gravel one. Nearby was located an primitive sanctuary dedicated to Vulcan known as Vulcanal (also
Volcanal): a small rectangular pit and elliptical basin carved out of an outcrop of tufa.[24]
It has been suggested that the earliest ancient materials collected in the area of the Vulcanal are from the 2nd one-half of the 8th century BC.[26]
Information technology appears that the Romans were enlightened of the sites’ primitive origins: the foundation of the Comitium and Vulcanal were attributed to Romulus himself while the first Curia (senate house), which was located nearby, to Tullus Hostilius.[27]

At the western end of the Forum, excavations near the House of the Vestals and the sanctuary of Vesta have revealed an of import grouping of 7th century BC buildings. The archaeologists have identified them every bit the early on phases of the Regia (House of the kings), Business firm of the Vestals and Domus Publica (official residence of the
pontifex maximus).[28]
At that place seems to have been something of a surge in development of the Forum in the final quarter of the seventh century BC, equally many of the changes appointment from 625 to 600 BC. Archaeologically, there is substantial evidence for the development of the Forum in the 6th century BC: parts of the paving have been found and a large number of fragments of terracotta decorations from this area suggests that structures effectually the Forum were becoming more elaborate and highly decorated.[29]

Roman Republic


Map of the Roman Forum. Structures of Republican Rome are shown in red, those of Imperial Rome in black. From Platner’south
Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 1904. (Adjusted)

During the Republican period the Comitium connected to be the central location for all judicial and political life in the metropolis.[30]
However, in order to create a larger gathering place, the Senate began expanding the open up area between the Comitium and the Temple of Vesta by purchasing existing private homes and removing them for public use. Building projects of several consuls repaved and congenital onto both the Comitium and the adjacent central plaza that was becoming the Forum.[31]

The 5th century BC witnessed the earliest Forum temples with known dates of structure: the Temple of Saturn (497 BC) and the Temple of Brush and Pollux (484 BC).[32]
The Temple of Concord was added in the following century, possibly by the soldier and statesman Marcus Furius Camillus. A long-held tradition of speaking from the elevated speakers’ Rostra—originally facing north towards the Senate House to the assembled politicians and elites—put the orator’south back to the people assembled in the Forum. A tribune known equally Caius Licinius (consul in 361 BC) is said to have been the kickoff to turn away from the elite towards the Forum, an deed symbolically repeated ii centuries later by Gaius Gracchus.[33]

This began the tradition of
locus popularis, in which fifty-fifty young nobles were expected to speak to the people from the Rostra. Gracchus was thus credited with (or accused of) disturbing the
mos maiorum
(“custom of the fathers/ancestors”) in ancient Rome. When Censor in 318 BC, Gaius Maenius provided buildings in the Forum neighborhood with balconies, which were called after him
maeniana, in order that the spectators might better view the games put on inside the temporary wooden arenas prepare at that place.

The Tribune benches were placed on the Forum Romanum, equally well. First, they stood next to the senate house; during the late Roman Republic they were placed in front of the Basilica Porcia.

The earliest basilicas (large, aisled halls) were introduced to the Forum in 184 BC by Marcus Porcius Cato, which began the procedure of “monumentalizing” the site. The Basilica Fulvia was dedicated on the northward side of the Forum foursquare in 179 BC. (It was rebuilt and renamed several times, as Basilica Fulvia et Aemilia, Basilica Paulli, Basilica Aemilia). Nine years subsequently, the Basilica Sempronia was dedicated on the south side.[34]

Many of the traditions from the Comitium, such as the pop assemblies, funerals nobles and games, were transferred to the Forum equally it developed.[34]
Especially notable was the move of the
comitia tributa, and then the focus of popular politics, in 145 BC. Specially important and unprecedented political events took place in 133 BC when, in the midst of riots in and around the Forum, the Tribune Tiberius Gracchus was lynched at that place by a group of senators.

In the 80s BC, during the dictatorship of Sulla, major work was done on the Forum including the raising of the plaza level by almost a meter and the laying of permanent marble paving stones.[35]
(Remarkably, this level of the paving was maintained more than or less intact for over a millennium: at least until the sack of Rome by Robert Guiscard and his Normans in 1084, when fail finally allowed debris to begin to accumulate unabated.)[36]

In 78 BC, the immense Tabularium (Records Hall) was built at the Capitoline Hill end of the Forum by order of the consuls for that year, M. Aemilius Lepidus and Q. Lutatius Catulus. In 63 BC, Cicero delivered his famous spoken communication denouncing the companions of the conspirator Catiline at the Forum (in the Temple of Concur, whose spacious hall was sometimes used every bit a meeting identify by the Senators). After the verdict, they were led to their deaths at the Tullianum, the nearby dungeon which was the only known state prison of the ancient Romans.[37]

Over time, the Comitium was lost to the ever-growing Curia and to Julius Caesar’south rearrangements earlier his assassination in 44 BC.[38]
That yr, two supremely dramatic events were witnessed by the Forum, perhaps the about famous ever to transpire at that place: Marc Antony’s funeral oration for Caesar (immortalized in Shakespeare’southward famous play) was delivered from the partially completed speaker’s platform known equally the New Rostra and the public burning of Caesar’s body occurred on a site directly across from the Rostra effectually which the Temple to the Deified Caesar was afterwards congenital past his smashing-nephew Octavius (Augustus).[39]
Almost 2 years later, Marc Antony added to the notoriety of the Rostra past publicly displaying the severed caput and correct hand of his enemy Cicero there.

Roman Empire


Rendering of the Roman Forum as it may take appeared during the Tardily Empire

After Julius Caesar’due south death and the end of the subsequent ceremonious war, Augustus would stop his great-uncle’s work, giving the Forum its terminal form. This included the southeastern end of the plaza where he synthetic the Temple of Caesar and the Curvation of Augustus there (both in 29 BC). The Temple of Caesar was placed between Caesar’s funeral pyre and the Regia. The Temple’s location and reconstruction of adjacent structures resulted in greater system akin to the Forum of Caesar.[40]
The Forum was also witness to the assassination of a Roman Emperor in 69 AD: Galba had set out from the palace to see rebels but was so feeble that he had to be carried in a litter. He was immediately met by a troop of his rival Otho’s cavalry near the
Lacus Curtius
in the Forum, where he was killed.

During these early Royal times, much economic and judicial business organisation transferred abroad from the Forum to larger and more extravagant structures to the northward. After the building of Trajan’s Forum (110 Advertisement), these activities transferred to the Basilica Ulpia.

The white marble Curvation of Septimius Severus was added at the northwest finish of the Forum shut to the foot of the Capitoline Hill and adjacent to the former, vanishing Comitium. It was dedicated in 203 AD to commemorate the Parthian victories of Emperor Septimius Severus and his 2 sons confronting Pescennius Niger, and is one of the most visible landmarks there today. The curvation airtight the Forum’due south fundamental surface area. Too the Arch of Augustus, which was also constructed following a Roman victory confronting the Parthians, it is the just triumphal curvation in the Forum.[41]
The Emperor Diocletian (r. 284–305) was the last of the great builders of Rome’s urban center infrastructure and he did not omit the Forum from his plan. By his day it had become highly chaotic with honorific memorials. He refurbished and reorganized it, building anew the Temple of Saturn, Temple of Vesta and the Curia Julia.[42]
The latter represents the all-time-preserved tetrarchic building in Rome. He too reconstructed the rostra at each terminate of the Forum and added columns.[41]

The reign of Constantine the Great saw the completion of the construction of the Basilica of Maxentius (312 Advertisement), the last meaning expansion of the Forum complex.[43]
This restored much of the political focus to the Forum until the fall of the Western Roman Empire almost two centuries later.



The city’due south estimated population vicious from 750,000–800,000 to 450,000 in 450 AD to 250,000 by 500 Advert. The populated areas contracted to the river. Strenuous efforts were made to keep the Forum (and the Palatine structures) intact, not without some success. In the sixth century some of the old edifices within the Forum began to be transformed into Christian churches. On 1 August 608, the Column of Phocas, a Roman monumental column, was erected earlier the Rostra and defended or rededicated in laurels of the Eastern Roman Emperor Phocas. This proved to be the last monumental addition made to the Forum. The emperor Constans II, who visited the city in 663 Advertising, stripped the lead roofs of the awe-inspiring buildings, exposing the structures to the weather and hastening their deterioration. Past the 8th century the whole space was surrounded past Christian churches taking the place of the abandoned and ruined temples.[44]

An bearding eighth-century Einsiedeln Itinerary reports that the Forum was already falling apart at that time. During the Center Ages, though the retention of the

Forum Romanum

persisted, its monuments were for the about part buried under debris, and its location was designated the
“Campo Vaccino”
or “cattle field,”[43]
located between the Capitoline Hill and the Colosseum.

Afterwards the eighth century the structures of the Forum were dismantled, rearranged and used to build towers and castles within the local area. In the 13th century these rearranged structures were torn downwards and the site became a dumping ground. This, along with the debris from the dismantled medieval buildings and ancient structures, helped contribute to the rising basis level.[45]

The return of Pope Urban Five from Avignon in 1367 led to an increased interest in ancient monuments, partly for their moral lesson and partly as a quarry for new buildings being undertaken in Rome after a long lapse.



Pope Paul Three exploited the ruins of the Forum for the building of St. Peter’s Basilica.

The Forum Romanum suffered some of its worst depredations during the Italian Renaissance, particularly in the decade between 1540 and 1550, when Pope Paul III exploited information technology intensively for fabric to build the new Saint Peter’s Basilica.[46]
Just a few years earlier, in 1536, the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V held a triumph in Rome on his render from conquering Tunis in North Africa. To set the Forum for the procession intended to imitate the pageantry of the ancient Roman triumph, the papal regime undertook sweeping demolitions of the many medieval structures on the site, to reveal and better display the ancient monuments.[48]
This required the clearance of some 200 houses and several churches, the excavation of a new “Via Sacra” to pass under the arches of Titus and Septimius Severus, and the excavation of the more prominent monuments to reveal their foundations.[49]

In 1425, Pope Martin V issued a papal balderdash inaugurating a campaign of civic improvement and rebuilding in the city, which was depopulated and dominated by ruins.[50]
The need for building materials consequently increased significantly, making the Forum a convenient quarry for stone and marble. Since the twelfth century, when Rome’s borough government was formed, responsibility for protecting the ruins of the forum fell to the
maestri di strade
nether the authority of the Conservatori, Rome’s senior magistrates.[51]
Historically, the
and the
saw themselves as guardians of Rome’s ancient legacy and zealously protected the ruins in the Forum from further destruction, but in the 15th century the Papacy gradually encroached upon these prerogatives. The Balderdash of 1425 strengthened the powers of the
in protecting the ruins, but in conferring papal potency the Vatican essentially brought the
under its control and away from the independence of the Conservators.[52]

In the 15th century, the Vatican escalated the issuance of excavation licenses, which gave broad permission to individuals to mine specific sites or structures for stone.[53]
In 1452, the power of the
to result their ain excavation licenses was revoked by the Bull of Pope Nicholas V, which absorbed that power into the Vatican. From then on only two authorities in Rome had the power to upshot such licenses: the Vatican and the Conservators.[54]
This dual, overlapping authority was recognized in 1462 by a Balderdash of Pope Pius Ii.[55]

Within the context of these disputes over jurisdiction, ruins in the forum were increasingly exploited and stripped. In 1426, a papal license authorized the devastation of the foundations of a structure called the “Templum Canapare” for burning into lime, provided that half the rock quarried exist shared with the Apostolic Camera (the Papal treasury). This structure was identified by Rodolfo Lanciani as the Basilica Julia, merely the name could have practical to any structure in the western department of the Forum, often called the
Betwixt 1431 and 1462 the huge travertine wall between the Senate House and the Forum of Caesar adjoining the Forum Romanum was demolished by grant of Pope Eugene IV, followed past the sabotage of the
Templum Sacrae Urbis
(1461-2), the Temple of Venus and Roma (1450), and the Firm of the Vestals (1499), all by papal license.[57]
The worst destruction in the forum occurred nether Paul Three, who in 1540 revoked previous earthworks licenses and brought the forum exclusively under the control of the Deputies of the Fabric of the new Saint Peter’southward Basilica, who exploited the site for stone and marble.[46]
Monuments which fell victim to dismantling and the subsequent burning of their materials for lime included the remains of the Arch of Augustus, the Temple of Caesar, parts of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, the Temple of Vesta, the steps and foundation of the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and the Regia.[59]
The Conservators protested vehemently against the ruination of their heritage, equally they perceived it, and on one occasion applied fruitlessly to Pope Gregory XIII (1572–1585) to revoke all licenses for foraging materials, including the one granted to the
of Saint Peter’due south in the forum.[60]

Excavation and preservation


The excavation past Carlo Fea, who began clearing the debris from the Arch of Septimius Severus in 1803 marked the beginning of clearing the Forum. Excavations were officially begun in 1898 past the Italian authorities under the Minister of Public Educational activity, Dr. Baccelli.[61]
The 1898, restoration had three primary objectives: restore fragmented pieces of columns, bases, and cornices to their original locations in the Forum, reach the lowest possible level of the Forum without damaging existing structures, and to place already half-excavated structures, along with the Senate firm and Basilica Aemilia. These state-funded excavations were led by Dr. Giacomo Boni until he died in 1925, stopping briefly during World War I.[62]

In 2008, heavy rains caused structural damage to the modern physical roofing holding the “Black Stone” marble together over the Lapis Niger in Rome. Excavations in the Forum proceed, with new discoveries by archaeologists working in the Forum since 2009 leading to questions nearly Rome’s exact age. I of these recent discoveries includes a tufa wall nigh the Lapis Niger used to channel water from nearby aquifers. Around the wall, pottery remains and food scraps immune archaeologists to date the likely construction of the wall to the 8th or 9th century BC, over a century before the traditional date of Rome’s founding.[63]

In 2020, Italian archaeologists discovered a sarcophagus and a circular chantry dating to the 6th century BC. Experts disagree whether it is a memorial tomb dedicated to Rome’due south legendary founder, Romulus.[64]

Temple of Saturn


The Temple of Saturn was one of the more significant buildings located in the Roman Forum. Little is known almost when the temple was built, as the original temple is believed to have been burnt down by the Gauls early in the fourth century. However, it is understood that it was also rebuilt by Munatius Plancus in 42 BC.[65]
The eight remaining columns are all that is left of the illustrious temple. Though its verbal engagement of completion is not known, it stands as one of the oldest buildings in the Forum.[66]
The temple originally was to be built to the god Jupiter merely was replaced with Saturn; historians are unsure why.[67]
The building was not used solely for religious practice; the temple too functioned every bit a bank for Roman social club.

The Temple stood in the forum along with four other temples, the temples of Concord, Vesta, Castor and Pollox. At each temple, animal sacrifices and rituals were done in front of the religious sites. These acts were meant to provide good fortune to those inbound and using the temple.[68]
Since the Temple of Saturn also functioned as a bank, and since Saturn was the god of the Golden Age, the sacrifices were made in hope of fiscal success.[69]

Inside the Temple there were multiple vaults for the public and private ones for individuals. At that place were also sections of the Temple for public speaking events and feasts which often followed the sacrifices.[lxx]

In fine art


The Roman Forum was a site for many artists and architects studying in Rome to sketch during the 17th through the 19th century. The focus of many of these works produced by visiting Northern artists was on electric current land of the Roman Forum, known locally as the “Campo Vaccino”, or “moo-cow field”, due to the livestock who grazed on the largely ignored section of the metropolis. Claude Lorrain’southward 1636
Campo Vaccino
shows the extent to which the building in the Forum were buried under sediment. Renowned British creative person J.K.W. Turner painted
Mod Rome – Campo Vaccino
in 1839, following his final trip to the urban center.[71]

The Roman Forum has been a source of inspiration for visual artists for centuries. Peculiarly notable is Giovanni Battista Piranesi, who created a ready of 135 etchings, the
Vedute di Roma
(“Views of Rome”), in which the Forum figured significantly. (Many of the features documented in Piranesi’south views accept now vanished.)

Other notable artists of the Forum include Canaletto, Maerten van Heemskerck, Pirro Ligorio, Giovanni Paolo Panini, and Hubert Robert.

Other fora in Rome


Other fora existed in other areas of the city; remains of near of them, sometimes substantial, still exist. The most of import of these are a number of large royal fora forming a complex with the Forum Romanum: the
Forum Iulium,
Forum Augustum, the
Forum Transitorium
Forum Nerva), and Trajan’s Forum. The planners of the Mussolini era removed well-nigh of the Medieval and Baroque strata and congenital the
Via dei Fori Imperiali
route between the Imperial Fora and the Forum. There are also:

  • The
    Forum Boarium, defended to the commerce of cattle, between the Palatine Loma and the river Tiber,
  • The
    Forum Holitorium, dedicated to the commerce of herbs and vegetables, between the Capitoline Hill and the Servian walls,
  • The
    Forum Piscarium, dedicated to the commerce of fish, between the Capitoline colina and the Tiber, in the expanse of the current Roman Ghetto,
  • The
    Forum Suarium, dedicated to the commerce of pork, near the barracks of the cohortes urbanae in the northern function of the Campus Martius,
  • The
    Forum Vinarium, dedicated to the commerce of wine, in the area now of the “quartiere” Testaccio, betwixt Aventine Hill and the Tiber.

Other markets were known but remain unidentifiable due to a lack of precise information on each site’south part.[72]

Run across too


  • Colossus of Constantine, colossal statue formerly in the west apse of the Basilica of Maxentius
  • Farnese Gardens (1550), immediately overlooking the Forum
  • Veduta



  1. ^

    “Worldwide Elevation Finder”.

  2. ^

    Grant, Michael (1970),
    The Roman Forum, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson; Photos past Werner Forman, p. 11.

  3. ^

    “La Stampa – La top ten dei monumenti più visti Primo il Colosseo, seconda Pompei”. Lastampa.it. 11 March 2013. Retrieved
    25 Baronial

  4. ^

    Watkin, David (2009).
    The Roman Forum. Harvard Academy Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN978-0-674-03341-ii
    . Retrieved
    half-dozen March

    , p. 22.

  5. ^

    A more than generous guess, including the surrounding buildings, would exist about 200 by 75 meters tall.

  6. ^

    Op. cit., p. 43.

  7. ^

    Lovell, Isabel (1904).
    Stories in Stone from the Roman Forum. pp. eight–9.

  8. ^

    History. p. 1.38.6.

  9. ^

    Ammerman, Albert (1990). “On the Origins of the Forum Romanum”.
    American Journal of Archeology.
    (4): 633. doi:ten.2307/505123. JSTOR 505123. S2CID 193074571.

  10. ^



    Op. cit., p. sixteen.

  11. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rise of Rome: From the Fe Historic period to the Punic Wars, thousand BC – 264 BC, London: Profile Books, 38.

  12. ^

    Fulminante, Francesca, 2014,
    The Urbanisation of Rome and Latium Vetus. From the Bronze Age to the Archaic Era, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 72-74.

  13. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rising of Rome: From the Iron Age to the Punic Wars, m BC – 264 BC, London: Profile Books, 39.

  14. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rise of Rome: From the Iron Age to the Punic Wars, 1000 BC – 264 BC, London: Contour Books, 39.

  15. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rise of Rome: From the Iron Age to the Punic Wars, g BC – 264 BC, London: Profile Books, twoscore-42.

  16. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
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  17. ^

    Marucchi, Horace (1906).
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  18. ^

    Parker, John Henry (1881).
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  19. ^

    Ammerman, Albert J., 1990, “On the Origins of the Forum Romanum”,
    American Periodical of Archaeology, Vol. 94, No. iv (Oct., 1990), 627-645.

  20. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rise of Rome: From the Iron Historic period to the Punic Wars, thousand BC – 264 BC, London: Profile Books, 90-95.

  21. ^

    Wiseman, Timothy Peter, 2008,
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  22. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Ascension of Rome: From the Fe Age to the Punic Wars, g BC – 264 BC, London: Profile Books, 90-95.

  23. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
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  24. ^

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    The Atlas of Ancient Rome. Biography and Portraits of the City. Vol. i. Text and Images, Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 151-152.

  25. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
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  26. ^

    Carafa, Paolo, 2005, ‘Il Volcanal due east il Comizio’,
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  27. ^

    Dionysius of Halicarnassus,
    Roman Antiquities, two.fifty.2 (attributes the foundation of the Vulcanal to Romulus and Titus Tatius); Varro,
    On the Latin Language, 5.74 (attributes the institution of the Vulcanal to Titus Tatius alone); Plutarch,
    Life of Romulus, nineteen.27.half-dozen (mentions that Romulus was supposedly killed by the senators next to the Vulcanal).

  28. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
    Rise of Rome: From the Iron Historic period to the Punic Wars, 1000 BC – 264 BC, London: Contour Books, 91–93.

  29. ^

    Lomas, Kathryn, 2018 (hardcover in 2017),
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  30. ^

    Vasaly, Ann (1996).
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  31. ^

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    The Oxford Classical Lexicon
    (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, p. 607.

  33. ^

    Beard, Mary; Due north, John A.; Price, Simon (1998).
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    Baedeker, Karl (1903).
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  35. ^

    Connolly, Peter and Hazel Dodge (1998),
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  36. ^

    Op. cit., p. 106.

  37. ^

    Op. cit., p. 79.

  38. ^

    The close relationship between the Comitium and the

    Forum Romanum

    somewhen faded from the writings of the ancients. The former is last mentioned in the reign of Septimius Severus (c.
     200 AD).

  39. ^

    Op. cit., pp. 111–112.

  40. ^

    “Roman Art and Archaeology,” Mark Fullerton, p. 118.
  41. ^



    “Roman Art and Archæology,” Marking Fullerton p. 358

  42. ^

    Op. cit., pp. 250–251.
  43. ^



    “Roman Forum”.

  44. ^

    Op. cit., p. 9.

  45. ^

    Goodyear, West. H. (1899).
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  46. ^



    Lanciani, 1897; pp. 247-48

  47. ^

    “The Roman Forum”. world-archaeology.com. 2010. Retrieved
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  48. ^

    Mary Beard (2007).
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  49. ^

    David Karmon (2011).
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  50. ^

    David Karmon (2011).
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  51. ^

    Karmon,2011; p. 54-55

  52. ^

    Karmon,2011; p. 49-50

  53. ^

    Rodolfo Lanciani (1897).
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  54. ^

    Karmon,2011; p.65-69

  55. ^

    Karmon,2011; p.69

  56. ^

    Karmon,2011; p.58-60

  57. ^

    Lanciani, 1897; p. 247

  58. ^

    “The Roman Forum”. world-archaeology.com. four September 2010. Retrieved
    4 January

  59. ^

    Lanciani, 1897; p=248

  60. ^

    Rodolfo Lanciani (1899).
    The Destruction of Ancient Rome: A Sketch of the History of the Monuments. Macmillan. pp. 228-31, 234–35.

  61. ^

    Carter, Jesse Bridegroom (March 1910). “A Decade of Forum Excavation and the Results for Roman History”.
    The Classical Journal.
    (5): 202–211. JSTOR 3286845.

  62. ^

    Grey, Mason D. (March 1901). “Recent Excavations in the Roman Forum”.
    The Biblical Globe.
    (three): 199–202. doi:10.1086/472777. JSTOR 3136821.

  63. ^

    Pruitt, Sarah. “Forum Excavations Reveal Rome’due south Advanced Age”.

  64. ^

    “Romulus mystery: Experts divided on ‘tomb of Rome’s founding male parent’“.
    BBC News. 21 February 2020. Retrieved
    28 June

  65. ^

    Richardson, Fifty. (1 Jan 1980). “The Approach to the Temple of Saturn in Rome”.
    American Journal of Archaeology.
    (one): 55. doi:10.2307/504394. JSTOR 504394. S2CID 193115520.

  66. ^

    Richardson, L. (i January 1980). “The Approach to the Temple of Saturn in Rome”.
    American Journal of Archaeology.
    (1): 52. doi:10.2307/504394. JSTOR 504394. S2CID 193115520.

  67. ^

    Richardson, L. (1 January 1980). “The Approach to the Temple of Saturn in Rome”.
    American Journal of Archæology.
    (1): 51–62. doi:10.2307/504394. JSTOR 504394. S2CID 193115520.

  68. ^

    Watkin, David, and Watkin, David. Wonders of the World Ser. : The Roman Forum. Cumberland, U.s.: Harvard Academy Press, 2009. ProQuest ebrary.

  69. ^

    Kalas, Gregor (2015).
    Ashley and Peter Larkin Series in Greek and Roman Culture : Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Antiquity : Transforming Public Space. Austin: Academy of Texas Printing. p. 16.

  70. ^

    Kalas, Gregor (2015).
    Ashley and Peter Larkin Series in Greek and Roman Culture : Restoration of the Roman Forum in Late Artifact : Transforming Public Space. Austin: Academy of Texas Press. p. 17.

  71. ^

    “Modern Rome – Campo Vaccino (Getty Museum)”.
    The J. Paul Getty in Los Angeles.

  72. ^

    Richardson, Fifty., Jr. (1992).
    A New Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. JHU Press. ISBN978-0801843006.

    {{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors listing (link)

External links


  • Reconstruction in 3D of the Roman Forum, Circus Maximus, and the Tiber Island – www.italyrome.info
  • Roman Forum’s 360×180 degree panorama virtual tour
  • Digital Roman Forum, 3D reconstructions of the Roman Forum in c. 400
  • Christian Hülsen: The Roman Forum (at LacusCurtius; Hülsen was i of the main excavators of the Forum)
  • Forum Romanum (photo archive)
  • Map of the Forum in AD 100, blank or labelled
  • Lucentini, K. (31 December 2012).
    The Rome Guide: Stride by Step through History’s Greatest City. ISBN9781623710088.

Media related to Forum Romanum at Wikimedia Commons

Which is the Best Description of a Roman Forum

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Forum

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