Which is Not a Characteristic of Vitamins

Which is Not a Characteristic of Vitamins

Classification of Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and minerals are only needed in modest quantities in the torso, simply their function is essential to overall health and proper functioning of all body systems. And while many vitamins and minerals piece of work together to perform various functions in the torso, they are classified based on their independent characteristics. These characteristics impact non simply how we obtain them in our diets, simply also how we absorb them and store them, as well as how we experience deficiencies or toxicities when too little or too much is consumed. After nosotros review the classifications for vitamins and minerals, nosotros volition examine key vitamins and minerals based on their like functions to farther highlight the importance of how these micronutrients piece of work together.


The name “vitamin” comes from Casimir Funk, who in 1912 thought “vital amines” (similar to amino acids) were responsible for preventing what we know now every bit vitamin deficiencies. He coined the term “vitamines” to describe these organic substances that were recognized every bit essential for life, yet unlike other organic nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, and fatty), do not provide energy to the trunk. Eventually, when scientists discovered that these compounds were not amines, the ‘e’ was dropped to form the term “vitamins.”ane

Classification of Vitamins

are essential, non-caloric, organic micronutrients. There is energy contained in the chemical bonds of vitamin molecules, but our bodies don’t make the enzymes to pause these bonds and release their energy; instead, vitamins serve other essential functions in the body. Vitamins are traditionally categorized into 2 groups:
water-soluble or fat-soluble. Whether vitamins are water-soluble or fat-soluble can affect their functions and sites of activity. For example, h2o-soluble vitamins often act in the cytosol of cells (the fluid within of cells) or in extracellular fluids such as blood, while fat-soluble vitamins play roles such equally protecting cell membranes from free radical damage or interim inside the cell’s nucleus to influence .

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A flow chart depicting how vitamins are divided into the two categories of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins. Each category of vitamins lists the vitamins that fall in that category.

Figure 8.ane. Classification of vitamins every bit water-soluble or fat-soluble.

One major divergence between water-soluble and fatty-soluble vitamins is the way they are absorbed in the body. Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed direct from the modest intestine into the bloodstream. Fat-soluble vitamins are first incorporated into chylomicrons, along with fatty acids, and transported through the lymphatic system to the bloodstream and so on to the liver. The

(i.eastward., the amount that gets absorbed) of these vitamins is dependent on the nutrient limerick of the diet. Because fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fat, if a meal is very low in fatty, the absorption of the fatty-soluble vitamins in that meal may be dumb.

A diagram shows the gastrointestinal tract and what happens to vitamins in each organ of the intestinal tract.

Figure 8.two. “Absorption of Fatty-Soluble and Water-Soluble Vitamins.”

Fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins also differ in how they are stored in the body.
The fat-soluble vitamins—vitamins A, D, East, and Yard—can be stored in the liver and the fat tissues of the body.

The ability to shop these vitamins allows the trunk to depict on these stores when dietary intake is low, so deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins may have months to develop as the body stores go depleted. On the flip side, the trunk’s storage capacity for fat-soluble vitamins increases the take a chance for toxicity. While toxic levels are typically just achieved through vitamin supplements, if large quantities of fat-soluble vitamins are consumed, either through foods or supplements, vitamin levels tin build up in the liver and fatty tissues, leading to symptoms of toxicity.

At that place is limited storage chapters in the body for h2o-soluble vitamins,
thus making it important to swallow these vitamins on a daily ground. Deficiency of water-soluble vitamins is more common than fat-soluble vitamin deficiency because of this lack of storage. That too ways toxicity of water-soluble vitamins is rare. Because of their solubility in h2o, intake of these vitamins in amounts in a higher place what is needed by the torso tin can, to some extent, be excreted in the urine, leading to a lower hazard of toxicity. Similar to fat-soluble vitamins, a toxic intake of h2o-soluble vitamins is non common through food sources, but is most oft seen due to supplement utilize.

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Characteristics of Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Characteristics of Water-Soluble


Protect prison cell membranes from free radical damage; human action within the cell’s nucleus to influence gene expression

Human activity in the cytosol of cells or in extracellular fluids such as blood

Captivated into lymph with fats from foods

Captivated directly into blood

Big storage chapters in fatty tissues

Little to no storage chapters

Practise not demand to be consumed daily to forestall deficiency (may take months to develop)

Need to exist consumed regularly to prevent deficiency

Toxicity is more likely

Toxicity is rare

Tabular array 8.ane. Characteristics of fat-soluble and h2o-soluble vitamins.


Similarly to vitamins, minerals are micronutrients that are essential to human health and can be obtained in our nutrition from dissimilar types of food. Minerals are arable in our everyday lives. From the soil in your front yard to the jewelry you vesture on your trunk, nosotros collaborate with minerals constantly.

are inorganic elements in their simplest form, originating from the Earth. They can’t be broken downward or used equally an free energy source, but similar vitamins, serve essential functions based on their private characteristics. Living organisms can’t make minerals, so the minerals our bodies need must come from the nutrition. Plants obtain minerals from the soil they grow in. Humans obtain minerals from eating plants, as well every bit indirectly from eating animal products (considering the animal consumed minerals in the plants it ate). We too go minerals from the water nosotros drink. The mineral content of soil and water varies from identify to place, so the mineral composition of foods and water differs based on geographic location.2

Green leafy vegetables are shown growing in a field of rich, brown soil.

Nomenclature of Minerals

Minerals are classified every bit either major minerals or trace minerals, depending on the corporeality needed in the trunk.

are those that are required in the diet in amounts larger than 100 milligrams each twenty-four hours. These include sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and sulfur. These major minerals can be institute in many foods. While deficiencies are possible with minerals, consuming a varied diet significantly improves an individual’s ability to meet their nutrient needs. We’ll talk over the concern of both deficiencies and toxicities of specific minerals later in this unit of measurement.

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are classified as minerals required in the diet in smaller amounts, specifically 100 milligrams or less per mean solar day. These include iron, copper, zinc, selenium, iodine, chromium, fluoride, manganese, and molybdenum. Although trace minerals are needed in smaller amounts, a deficiency of a trace mineral tin can be just as detrimental to your health equally a major mineral deficiency.

A flow chart shows how minerals are categorized as major minerals and trace minerals. The flow chart lists which minerals are major minerals and which minerals are trace minerals.

Figure eight.three. The classification of minerals as either major minerals or trace minerals.

Minerals are water-soluble and do not crave enzymatic digestion. They are captivated direct into the bloodstream, although some minerals demand the aid of transport proteins for absorption and transport in blood.

Minerals are not as efficiently captivated every bit almost vitamins, and many factors influence their bioavailability:

  • Minerals are generally amend absorbed from animal-based foods. Plant-based foods frequently contain compounds that can bind to minerals and inhibit their absorption (e.chiliad., oxalates, phytates).
  • In most cases, if dietary intake of a detail mineral is increased, assimilation will decrease.
  • Some minerals influence the assimilation of others. For example, excess zinc in the diet tin impair iron and copper absorption. Conversely, certain vitamins raise mineral absorption. For example, vitamin C boosts iron assimilation, and vitamin D boosts calcium and magnesium assimilation.
  • As is the case with vitamins, mineral assimilation tin can be impaired past sure gastrointestinal disorders and other diseases, such as Crohn’south disease and kidney disease, too as the aging procedure. Thus, people with malabsorption atmospheric condition and the elderly are at higher risk for mineral deficiencies.

Which is Not a Characteristic of Vitamins

Source: https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/nutritionscience/chapter/8a-classification-vitamins-minerals/

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