Which Instrument is the Ancestor of the Modern Oboe

Which Instrument is the Ancestor of the Modern Oboe.



History of the Oboe


Basic Timeline


Brief Narrative History


Bibliography

Beneath is a basic timeline of the oboe’south development and history including web links to interesting and informative sites for further research.  Also, cheque out the brief narrative history, which gives a more than complete and comprehensive summary than the timeline, if you and so desire. We will keep to brand additions as our researching continues.  Nosotros hope you will notice this useful!

Brief Timeline

Antiquity The oboe and its double reed ancestors are likely one of the oldest instruments.  Similar double-reed instruments appear in artwork and are referenced in literature from India, Mongolia, China and Japan as well equally the Arabs and Greeks.  From there, its influence spread westward into Europe probably by means of the Silk Route and Medieval troubadours during the fourth dimension of the Crusades.
http://idrs.colorado.edu/Publications/Journal/JNL2/oboecenter.html
Aulos– In ancient Greece, information technology is thought to accept been important in theater as well equally other of import occasions. Consisting of a double-bodied, cylindrical bore (connected at the mouthpiece) with finger holes.  It is considered the antecedent of the bagpipes and 1 of the primeval recorded appearances of a double reed instrument.

http://didaskalia.open.ac.uk/bug/vol2no2/Neuman.html

http://www.answers.com/topic/aulos

1200’south Doucaine– “The doucaine was discovered a few years ago (circa 1969+) in the sunken wreck of one of Henry VIII’s state of war ships. Information technology is somewhat like a shawm only has a more often than not cylindrical bore instead of conical, which gives it a somewhat more subdued presence.”
http://www.amazon.com/gp/production/customer-reviews/B00005YHZH/002-4982015-1764034?%5Fencoding=UTF8
1400’southward Crumhorn– A precursor of the recorder. It’s bore is cylindrical and the double reed is enclosed past a wind cap.

http://members.iinet.net.au/~nickl/crumhorn.html

http://www.answers.com/topic/shawm

Curtal– A descendant of the shawm, but precursor to the bassoon. The body is a folded conical diameter.
http://www.dcook.dircon.co.uk/dulcian.htm
1500-1600’s Rackett– An antecedent of the bassoon.  The internal structure consists of 9 parallel cylinders creating a long tube capable of very low pitches.

http://www.due south-hamilton.k12.ia.us/antiqua/rackett.htm

http://www.contrabass.com/pages/rackett.html

http://www.answers.com/rackett

1200- 1600’south Shawm– The direct ancestor of the oboe which was probably introduced into Europe during the Crusades when the Saracen armies invaded and used this musical instrument in war equally well as for dancing.  The bore is conical and broad, every bit is the double reed. The body is synthetic from a unmarried slice of wood with finger holes.

http://www.publicinterest.com/woodwinds/shawms/

http://www.answers.com/topic/shawm

1600’s Hautbois– Jean Hotteterre adult the “indoor” version of the shawn due to the increasing need for chromatic flexibility in the music of the fourth dimension.  The changes made were a narrowing of the bore, the musical instrument was broken into three joints, and the reed decreased in width.  In addition, some keys were added to facilitate range and fingerings.  Keys were added as fourth dimension progressed.

http://www.contrabass.com/pages/rackett.html


http://world wide web.answers.com/oboe


http://www.geocities.com/viennaonline/inst/is0600.html

http://www.idrs.org/publications/dr/dr23.iv.pdf/historical_oboes.pdf

1600’due south English language horn (cor anglais)– Though it was developed in the tardily 17th century, it did not enter the standard orchestra until the 1830’s.  The instrument’s name is said to be a mistranslation of the French “cor angl�” which actually means “bent horn.”  Information technology is characterized by its bulbous-shaped bell and use of a bocal. In add-on, it is pitched in F (a fifth below the oboe in C), making it the so-called “tenor” voice of the oboe family.
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/c/co/cor_anglais.htm
1632-1687 Jean-Baptiste Lully
was the Italian born French composer and conductor in the court of Louis Xiv.  He is credited as the founder of French opera and greatly influenced execution and composition of orchestral literature.  In addition, he added several new instruments to the orchestral scene and was probable involved in the evolution of the hautbois.
http://www.answers.com/topic/jean-baptiste-lully
?-? Jean Hotteterre
came from a family credited with the development of several musical instruments in the 17th century, including the hautbois.  Jean was a musician in the court of Louis XIV for whom it is said the hautbois was created by asking.

http://www.amarcordes.ch/compositeurs/hotteterre_grove.htm
1700’s Oboe d’amore (d’amour)– This instrument was first used by Christoph Graupher and frequently thereafter by J.S. Bach and G.P. Telemann.  Even so, information technology brutal out of utilise until the 19th century when composers such every bit Strauss and Debussy revived it.  Pitched in A (a third below the oboe in C), it is ofttimes described every bit the alto vocalisation of the oboe family. It resembles the oboe in structure except that it is slightly longer and requires a bocal to secure the reed to the musical instrument.
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/o/ob/oboe_damore.htm
1800’s Heckelphone (bass oboe)– Created by Wilhelm Heckel, information technology is a wider bored and lower range version of the oboe.  It is not commonly used, just appears in a few 19th century orchestral literature such equally “The Planets” by Gustav Holst.
http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/encyclopedia/h/he/heckelphone.htm
1820 Stephen Koch (1772-1828)
and
Joseph Sellner (1787-1843)
develop the Viennese style oboe with “a classic appearance with a bore that was extremely narrow past the standards of the time.”
http://world wide web.vsl.co.at/english language/instruments/woodwinds/oboes/oboe/History.htm
1860’s Modernistic oboe– The “modern oboe” is developed by the Triebert family. “As on 18th century oboes, its bell has an incurved inner rim, and the third hole on the upper articulation is double. All ten keys are of silver, mounted on posts and axles; rings, wells, sockets, and a narrow thumbrest are of argent also. Springs are flat, of tempered steel, and are in full general fastened to the underside of the keys. The keys accept round cups, slightly domed, and the joints are lapped with thread.”
http://idrs.colorado.edu/Publications/Journal/JNL17/JNL17.Hedrick.10key.html

http://world wide web.idrs.org/publications/dr/dr23.4.pdf/historical_oboes.pdf

1860’s Tri�bert Family (Guillame 1779-1848), Charles-Louis, and Fr�d�ric
(1813-1878)  –
The
family which adult and established the “modernistic oboe” in the 1860’s. Guillame’s 2nd son, Fr�d�ric, developed the system which was declared the official oboe of the Paris Conservatory by Georges Gillet and Francois Lor�due east.  The Tri�bert tradition is continued in the current F. Lor�e Company in Paris.
http://www.idrs.org/publications/dr/dr23.4.pdf/historical_oboes.pdf

http://idrs.colorado.edu/publications/periodical/jnl24/paris.html


1799-1839

Henri Brod
studied with the oboist Vogt (Reicha Quintet) and invented such tools equally the pikestaff shaper, gouging car, and straight-bodied English horn.
http://idrs.colorado.edu/Publications/Journal/JNL6/brod.html

http://world wide web.balthazarensemble.com/Practise/composer/5/View.html

1804�1879 Apollon 1000. Barret
is most known for the Barret oboe method, but also contributed much to the mechanical innovations to the oboe in the belatedly 19th century, such as the speaker key (eliminated the need to over accident the octave).  He was a student of Vogt (Reicha Quintet) at the Paris Conservatoire and spent most of his life playing opera in London.
1854-1920 Georges Gillet
was the famous professor of oboe at the Paris Conservatoire who succeeded Vogt.  Several of his students (such as Marcel Tabuteau) became renowned oboists, as well, and went on to found what is known as the “French-American schoolhouse of oboe teaching and playing.”
http://idrs.colorado.edu/publications/journal/jnl24/paris.html
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A Brief History of the Oboe


What is known near the antiquated history of the oboe is little in comparison to most other instruments.
It is generally based on pictorial representations of ancient civilizations or passing references in historical accounts, lending to the idea that some form of the double reeds did indeed be in aboriginal civilizations.


The oboe�s distinguishing feature from other instruments (excluding those in its respective family) is the existence of a double reed:
two flattened blades of bamboo that produce audio through the vibrations of one blade against the other.
In its almost primitive class, the reed was a rudimentary reed pipage that would have produced a vibrating sound non much unlike than a honk or squeak.[ane]

Combining the reed with the tube was probably a product of Eurasian descent.
Eastern civilizations took the idea of the reed and tube a footstep closer to creating an actual musical instrument.
Realizing the reed may impairment or wear out, they started separating the reed from the piping so that the reed could potentially exist replaced.
Merchant travels on the Erstwhile Silk Road across Central Asia began to spread the influence of the double reed instrument and its descents.
Early forms of the double reeds still exist today, such equally the whit horn (a one-note reed horn made of coiled willow bawl pinned together with blackthorn spines).[2]


An instrument such every bit this was first noted in an analogy dating from 3000 BC Egyptian art.
In an digging at the Royal Cemetery of Ur, an instrument fabricated of silver was unearthed.
At that place is reason to believe it may exist a double reed musical instrument since its design (a narrow bore with three holes) would but allow it to play whole-tone scales.
This example likewise resembles an musical instrument common throughout the Eye Eastward.
Rare surviving examples of Ptolemaic Egyptian reeds besides bear witness two reeds spring together with thread (probably done in the early stages of the reed�s growth for pliability).
This would have been inserted into a pipe, perhaps similar those institute in Ur.
Egyptian murals, similar one depicting a banquet in laurels of the dead, shows a frontal view of a double-bodied oboe (probably with a single reed) with the reed mouthpieces conspicuously defined.


Greek artwork also portrays musicians holding the reed directly between the lips, but the Greeks sophisticated the instruments past subdividing the semitone step.
This instrument was referred to as the
aulos:
a type of double oboe, which had two divergent pipes of equal length, each with double reed. Notwithstanding, Greek literature (such as

in Homer�s

Iliad) suggests the instrument might not take been originally Greek.
A passage describes the conversations of the Trojans:

And whensoever [Agememnon] looked toward that Trojan plain, he marveled at the many fires that blazed in forepart of the Ilios, and at the sound of the auloi and syrinz, and the dissonance of men.[3]

Whatever its origins, the oboe ancestors seem to take played a significant role in society and, through continued refinement and development, took an of import part in Western music.


The use of various predecessors of the oboe were oft considered to be of some divine nature and thus an important ways of expressions.
The hieroglyphics from the mural previously mentioned (�Feast in honor of the expressionless�) also relay the words to a dance praising their gods for natural beauty. From this information technology may exist assumed the instrument�s sound was associated with nature or possibly historic as worthy of use in divine praise.
Similarly, in Greek mythology, the aulos was associated with Pallas (Athena), Zeus�s favorite girl.
The audio was described every bit �many-voiced� and �capable of imitating �a cry exceeding shrill.��[iv]

At that place is as well testify suggesting double-reed instruments were used as morale builders for troops in battle.
The Roman
tibia
often held this function in war, although it was more than widely used for a variety of other occasions.
In fact, musicians were in high demand, thrived on popularity, and were entitled to social club fellow member privileges.
Tibia was probable the most significant of the instruments in Roman order since information technology referenced musicians playing tibia in groups in the
Twelve-Tabular array Law
of 451 BC (a document regulating relations betwixt plebeians and patricians).
Rome took many Greek artists captive during the Hellenistic era, which seemed to influence the refining of the musical instrument.[v]


No 1 knows the exact ways of the musical instrument�s migration into the Due west, only it is generally accepted that the double reed reached Europe during the
Crusades.
Increased trade propelled Medieval Europe�due south growth and expansion.
With silks and spices came wandering minstrels playing instruments of Byzantine origin.
The crusaders themselves might have heard a double reed instrument on the battlefields of the Eastward.
The Latin
calamus
(�blade of grass�) was the re-emergence of the Roman tibia in early on Medieval Europe.
Each European country then gave birth to its own version of the instrument such as the German language schalmei, English shawm, Sometime French chalemie, and Old Spanish chalemel.
[six]

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At its places of origin, double-reed instruments connected to play an of import part in worship and exalted occasions.
However, sacred music of Europe was upwards (to that indicate) exclusively monophonic plainchant.
Association with �Infidels� from the Eastward, and perhaps the historical accounts of pagan worship and ceremonies of Rome, resulted in the Church�s unwillingness to admit strange instruments in sacred music since the adoption of Christendom in Europe.
All the same, artwork indicates that instrumental music was pop amidst secular society.  Unfortunately, very trivial instrumental
notated music survived from this catamenia.


Still, Interest in instrumental music began to flourish in the ensuing Renaissance flow of Europe.
Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) documented detailed descriptions and data on �all aboriginal and modern musical instruments� in the 2nd book of his piece of work
Syntagma musicum.
The
shawm
and bagpipes were named amongst the double reed instruments.
The shawm, considered the predecessor of the modern oboe, was a pop musical instrument of this period, lending to the notion it had been growing in popularity through the silent medieval period.
Yet, the wideness of the shawm�due south reed and bore produced a mellow, notwithstanding intense amount of sound.
Thus, it was often only used for outdoor or large-calibration activities.
Other double reed instruments mentioned were rackets (precursor of the modern bassoon) and pommels.
These instruments would accept commonly been played in varying ensemble combinations every bit the music was oft written to suit any instrumental grouping.


The musical sphere was altered dramatically in the early 1600�south, due in role to the Xxx Years War (1618-1648).
Power and wealth centralized solely in the monarchy and aristocracy of Europe, which profited just the artists and musicians who could win their favor.  However, this power shift also launched many notable refinements and inventions.  It is suspected the shawm�southward popularity with King Louis 14 of French republic led him to request that the instrument be modified for indoor
performance.  But t
he increasing chromaticism and dynamic range of music was also limiting the use of the shawm in progressive music.
During the 17th
century, members of the prominent musical instrument-making
Hotteterre
family narrowed the bore of the treble shawm, dispensed of the pirouette so that the reed was in direct contact with the lips, added ii mechanical keys and a contraction rim to the bell.
The pitch was lowered by one tone to a concert C.
These modifications lent to an enlivened, but still uneven timbre.  This was due in part to the use of cantankerous-fingerings (in place of a primal system) which obscured the audio.




Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687),

was some other musician and innovator that played a significant part in the oboe’s role in the music world. An Italian born composer and conductor in the courtroom of Louis XIV of France, he is primarily credited as the founder of French opera.  He as well greatly influenced execution and composition of orchestral literature and added several new instruments to the orchestra.
The hautbois made its orchestral debut in his ballet
L�amour malade
(1657) and the success of its incorporation in this and other prominent performances attracted the attention of courts beyond Europe.
Oboists were ofttimes well paid if they were willing to travel, which in the manner of the medieval troubadours, expanded its popularity.

The Edict of Nantes
(1685) and the growing ability of Lully�s musical and social associations in France as well caused many musicians to flee the French courts and establish academies of music throughout Europe.
The kickoff musical tutors began emerging in England where the virtuosic oboist Jacques Paisible was gaining recognition.


While instruments were developing at a quick pace in the upper chaff of gild, there is evidence the older instruments were still being played.
An engraving past the poet Wiegel (1661-1725) makes reference to the shawm and gives an interesting insight into the societal construction:

Abroad grand rural shawm! My audio shall bulldoze thee hence

I serve correct well in time of peace and time of war,

I serve the church and serve at court, where thou fine art non,

Vino is my reward, and thou must exercise with yeasty beer,

Though in the village, I in castles live and towns,

Though hast but a penny ribbon; I take golden chains.
[7]

            The shawm seemed to remain in use, only the hautbois was speedily emerging as a mainstream musical instrument of the orchestra.
During the 18thursday
century, the orchestra set-up began to develop into what would become the standard for the Classical and Romantic styles.
The cord department became the cadre of the orchestra.  Violas were not ever included in the Classical period orchesta; instead, they would add a pair of French horns and oboes.
The oboe often held the function of sustaining chords and imitating string passages, giving it a prominent solo role. In addition, oboists often doubled on instruments such every bit the transverse flute or the bassoon, which were included in the score but never played simultaneously with the oboe.
Other oboe-related instruments, such every bit the
cor anglais
(too known as �English horn�) begin to emerge in scores from the Classical menstruation, as well.[8]


The wind section was beginning to accept a more prominent seat in the orchestra.
Clarinets were added to the orchestra originally to supercede the technical uneasiness of the trumpet.
The new array of instruments opened a new spectrum of sound colors to dispense. This too gave elbowroom to increased technical and lyrical demands on the instruments. Virtuosic compositions for oboe in bedchamber and orchestral settings emerged with keen popularity.

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The higher technical demands necessitated further improvements. By the early 19th
century, there were already many oboes possessing up to viii keys, as opposed to the original two.
A pes joint with the C and C# keys was some other pregnant enhancement.
Scientific research, such E.F.F. Chladni�s
Die Akustik
(1759-1827), discussed the woodwind acoustics of open and stopped pipes and brought up bug such equally tone hole placements.
Theobald Boehm (1794-1881) attempted to utilize his mechanical arrangement
[9]

developed for the transverse flute, but the experiment was not successful and production was rapidly abandoned.


The effects of the Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) dramatically boosted manufacturing and commerce; musicians were no exception. Up to this point, there had been no differing schools of oboe playing as had developed for other instruments, like the transverse flute. However, German instrument makers had been developing a highly avant-garde key system for the oboe to avoid cross-fingerings commencement in the 18th
century.
French republic followed in suit, although some felt the new system forfeited the sound quality.
By 1825, the French preference of a brighter and more manifest audio divided from the German preference for tonal depth and blending.
Both instruments were being made with fifteen tone holes and 10 keys, but the French model assumed a narrower diameter and thinner walls and reeds than the German.
In turn-of-the-century Vienna, a �combined� model emerged from the hands of
Stephen Koch (1772-1828)
and
Joseph Sellner (1787-1843).
This joined the German language advent and key piece of work mounts with the narrow French bore.
The Viennese oboe is yet played in Austria, however the French system was to become the international standard.

Guillame Tri�bert
had worked nether a German language musical instrument maker in Germany until he began his ain instrument manufacturing business in French republic by 1811.
His 2nd son,
Fr�d�ric Tri�bert (1813-1878),
inherited the industry and dedicated his life entirely to the industry of oboes.
He worked closely with other notable oboists and innovators, such as
Apollon M.R. Barret (1804-1879)
who added the speaker key to the oboe, eliminating the need to over-blow the octave, among other mechanical innovations;
Henri Brod (1799-1839)
helped refine the tone quality past developing reed making equipment.
[11]


The bore was narrowed notwithstanding again, the walls of the bore made thinner, the tone holes smaller, and consequently, the reed became shorter and narrower.
The measurements increased the oboe�s range to approximately two octaves.
As a outcome, the oboist was more able to produce a focused sound and control the volume and balance in ensemble settings.[10]

The practice of switching betwixt instruments became less frequent equally musicians began to develop expert proficiency and methodology on unmarried instruments.  The
Tri�bert syst�me 6
oboe was patented in 1872 and was later pronounced �the official model at the Conservatoire de Paris� by the oboe professor
Georges Gillet
and
Fran�ois Lor�e,
the
Tri�bert factory foreman who inherited the business organization.  A successive line of prominent oboists emerged from the Paris Conservatoire, among them
Marcel Tabuteau (1887-1966),
who was one of the establishers of the French-American school of oboe playing and teaching.

            While the 19th
century oboist was well-nigh exclusively confined to the orchestra and had no desire to venture out soloistically, most of the 20th
century saw the budding of virtuosic players who pushed the limits of oboe playing beyond the standard.   The oboe�due south potential has increased orchestrally and soloistically through the centuries and oboe manufacturers have continued to strive for perfection in mechanism and tone production as musical demands go on to expand.  Not only in the concluding xxx years but throughout all of history, the oboe’due south unique penetrating sound has not just given it a specific role in music but has inspired musicians to accomplish for perfection in the making of the instrument and its music.




Bibliography

  • Barnes, Anthony.

    Woodwind Instruments and Their History.
    New York: WW Norton & Company, Inc., 1957.
  • Bate, Philip.
    The Oboe: An outline of its History, Development and Structure.
    3rd
    ed., New York: WW Norton & Co., 1975.
  • “Boehm System.”
    Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 2005.
    Answers.com
    GuruNet Corp. 20 Jul. 2005. http://www.answers.com/topic/boehm-system
  • Brohwsay, Roy.
    �Michael Praetorius.�
    MSN Search, 2002. http://ocelot.cc.purdue.edu/~raybro/
  • Haynes, Bruce.

    The Eloquent Oboe: A History of the Hautboy 1640-1760.
    New York:
    Oxford University Press, 2001.
  • Joppig, Gunther.

    The Oboe and the Bassoon.
    Portland, Oregon:
    Amadeus Printing, 1988.
  • Palmer, Andrew. �Heinz Holliger.�
    IDRS Journal, 1997. http://idrs.colorado.edu/Publications/DR/DR20.ii.pdf.code1/Holliger.html

  • Perkins, Neil (translator to English).
    Vienna Symphonic Library: Instruments Online. Woodwinds: Oboes. Vienna Symphonic Library, 2005. http://world wide web.vsl.co.at/english language/instruments/woodwinds/oboes/oboe/History.htm
  • Randel, Don, Ed.
    The New Harvard Dictionary of Music.
    Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1986.
  • Rosenthal, Joel T. �Crusades.�


    MSN Encarta

    , 2002.

    http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761561210&pn=1#s1/
    >

  • Storch, Laila. �100 F. Loree 1881-1981.�
    IDRS Journal, 1977. http://idrs.colorado.edu/Publications/Periodical/JNL9/loree.html/
  • Margelli, Tad. �The Paris Conservatoire Concours Oboe Solos: The Gillet Years (1882-1919).�
    IDRS Periodical. http://idrs.colorado.edu/publications/journal/jnl24/paris.html

[1]
Barnes 189

[ii]
Barnes 191

[three]
Joppig nineteen

[4]
Joppig 18-19

[5]
Joppig 24-26

[6]
Joppig 30

[vii]
Joppig 51

[8]
Joppig 135

[ix]
Boehm System: Answers.com

[10]
Vienna Symphonic Library

[11]
Storch 1

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Please obtain permission earlier reproducing it.
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Which Instrument is the Ancestor of the Modern Oboe

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