Which Historical Figure or Concept Does Man Symbolize

Famous person in history

A
historical figure
is a significant person in history.

The significance of such figures in human progress has been debated. Some think they play a crucial role, while others say they have niggling affect on the wide currents of thought and social modify. The concept is generally used in the sense that the person actually existed in the past, as opposed to being legendary. Yet, the legends that tin grow upwards around historical figures may be hard to distinguish from fact. Sources are oft incomplete and may exist inaccurate, particularly those from early on periods of history. Without a body of personal documents, the more subtle aspects of personality of a historical effigy tin can only be deduced. With historical figures who were also religious figures attempts to separate fact from belief may exist controversial.

In education, presenting information every bit if it were being told by a historical figure may give it greater bear upon. Since classical times, students have been asked to put themselves in the place of a historical figure as a mode of bringing history to life. Historical figures are often represented in fiction, where fact and fancy are combined. In earlier traditions, before the rise of a critical historical tradition, authors took less care to exist every bit accurate when describing what they knew of historical figures and their actions, interpolating imaginary elements intended to serve a moral purpose to events. More than recently there has been a tendency one time once again for authors to freely depart from the “facts” when they conflict with their creative goals.

Significance

[edit]

The significance of historical figures has long been the subject of debate past philosophers. Hegel (1770–1831) considered that “earth-historical figures” played a pivotal role in human progress, only felt that they were bound to emerge when change was needed. Thomas Carlyle (1795–1881) saw the study of figures such equally Muhammad, William Shakespeare and Oliver Cromwell as primal to understanding history. Herbert Spencer (1820–1903), an early on believer in evolution and in the universality of natural law, felt that historical individuals were of little importance.


Hegel’s world-historical figure

[edit]

The German philosopher Hegel defined the concept of the world-historical effigy, who embodied the ruthless advance of Immanuel Kant’s World Spirit, often overthrowing outdated structures and ideas. To him, Napoleon was such a figure.[1]
Hegel proposed that a world-historical figure essentially posed a claiming, or thesis, and this would generate an antithesis, or opposing strength. Eventually a synthesis would resolve the conflict.[2]
Hegel viewed Julius Caesar as a world historical figure, who appeared at a phase when Rome had grown to the indicate it could no longer go on every bit a republican metropolis country but had to go an empire. Caesar failed in his bid to make himself an emperor, and was assassinated, only the empire came into existence soon afterward, and Caesar’s proper name has become synonymous with “emperor” in forms such as “kaiser” or “czar”.[three]

Søren Kierkegaard, in his early on essay
The Concept of Irony, generally agrees with Hegel’s views, such as his characterization of Socrates as a world-historical figure who acted every bit a destructive strength on Greek received views of morality.[4]
In Hegel’s view, Socrates broke down social harmony by questioning the meaning of concepts similar “justice” and “virtue”. Eventually, the Athenians condemned Socrates to death. Simply they could not finish the evolution of idea that Socrates had begun, which would lead to the concept of individual conscience.[5]
Hegel said of globe-historical figures,

Information technology was theirs to know this nascent principle; the necessary, directly sequent stride in progress, which their world was to take; to make this their aim, and to expend their free energy in promoting it … They die early similar Alexander; they are murdered, similar Caesar; transported to St. Helena, like Napoleon … They are
swell
men, considering they willed and accomplished something great; not a mere fancy, a mere intention, but that which met the case and brutal in with the needs of the historic period.[half-dozen]

However, Hegel, Thomas Carlyle and others noted that the great historical figures were just representative men, expressions of the material forces of history. Essentially they take fiddling choice about what they practice. This is in conflict with the views of George Bancroft or Ralph Waldo Emerson, who praised self-reliance and individualism, and in conflict with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, who also felt that individuals can determine their destiny.[7]
Engels found that Hegel’southward organisation contained an “internal and incurable contradiction”, resting as it does on both dialectical relativism and idealistic absolutism.[eight]

Spencerian view

[edit]

Herbert Spencer, who considered events in the lives of kings “historic trivalities”

The Scottish philosopher and evolutionist Herbert Spencer, who was highly influential in the latter one-half of the nineteenth century, felt that historical figures were relatively unimportant. He wrote to a friend, “I ignore utterly the personal chemical element in history, and, indeed, bear witness little respect for history birthday as it is unremarkably conceived.” He wrote, “The births, deaths, and marriages of kings, and other like historic trivialities, are committed to retention, non because of any straight benefits that can possibly result from knowing them: but because gild considers them parts of a good education.”[9]
In his essay
What Knowledge Is of Nearly Worth?
he wrote:

That which constitutes History, properly so chosen, is in neat part omitted from works on the discipline. Only of tardily years accept historians commenced giving united states, in any considerable quantity, the truly valuable data. As in past ages the rex was everything and the people nothing; So, in by histories, the doings of the male monarch fill the unabridged pic, to which the national life forms but an obscure background. While only now, when the welfare of nations rather than of rulers is condign the dominant idea, are historians beginning to occupy themselves with the phenomena of social progress. The thing it really concerns united states to know is the natural history of guild.[ten]

Inevitability or determinism

[edit]

Taken to an extreme, ane may consider that what Hegel calls the “world spirit” and T. S. Eliot calls “those vast impersonal forces” concur us in their grip. What happens is predetermined.[eleven]
Both Hegel and Marx advocated historical inevitability in dissimilarity to the doctrine of contingency, allowing for alternative outcomes, that was advocated by Friedrich Nietzsche, Michel Foucault and others.[12]
However, Marx argued confronting the use of the “historical inevitability” argument when used to explain the destruction of early communes in Russia.[13]
As an orthodox Marxist, Vladimir Lenin accustomed the laws of history that Marx had discovered, including the historical inevitability of capitalism followed by a transition to socialism. Despite this, Lenin also believed the transition could be effected faster by voluntary activeness.[xiv]

In 1936 Karl Popper published an influential paper on
The Poverty of Historicism, published as a book in 1957, that attacked the doctrine of historical inevitability.[fifteen]
The historian Isaiah Berlin, author of
Historical Inevitability, too argued forcibly against this view, going as far equally to say that some choices are entirely costless and cannot exist predicted scientifically.[eleven]
Berlin presented his views in a 1953 lecture at the London School of Economic science, published soon later. When speaking he referred to Ludwig Wittgenstein’s views, but the published version speaks approvingly of Karl Popper, which caused a stir among academics.[xvi]

Heroic view

[edit]

Thomas Carlyle has consort the “heroic view” of history, famously saying in his essay on the Norse god Odin in his volume
On heroes, hero-worship, & the heroic in history
that “No groovy man lives in vain. The History of the globe is just the Biography of great men … We practise not now call our bully men Gods, nor admire
without
limit; ah no,
with
limit enough! Merely if we take no great men, or do not adore at all,— that were a notwithstanding worse case.”[17]
Carlyle’south historical philosophy was based on the “Peachy Man theory”, saying, “Universal History, the history of what homo has accomplished in the earth … [is] at lesser the History of the Great Men who have worked here.” An extreme believer in individuality, he also believed that the masses of people should let themselves be guided by the great leaders of men.[18]
Talking of poets he said,

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That platonic outline of himself, which a homo unconsciously shadows forth in his writings, and which, if rightly deciphered, volition be truer than whatsoever other representation of him, it is the task of the Biographer to fill up-upwards into an bodily coherent figure, and to bring him to our feel, or at least our clear undoubted admiration, thereby to instruct and edify u.s. in many ways. Conducted on such principles, the Biography of nifty men, especially of cracking Poets, that is, of men in the highest degree noble-minded and wise, might become one of the virtually dignified and valuable species of composition.[nineteen]

More than recently, in his 1943 book
The Hero in History, the pragmatist scholar Sidney Hook asserts:

That history is made by men and women is no longer denied except past some theologians and mystical metaphysicians. And even they are compelled indirectly to acknowledge this commonplace truth, for they speak of historical personages as ‘instruments’ of Providence, Justice, Reason, Dialectic, the
Zeitgeist, or Spirit of the Times. Men agree more readily most the consequences of the use of ‘instruments’ in history than they exercise near the ultimate ends ‘instruments’ allegedly serve, or the kickoff causes by which they are allegedly adamant.[20]

Claw recognizes the relevance of the environment within which the “great man” or “hero” acted, but asserts that this can provide the properties but never the plot of the “dramas of human history”. and distinguish life and species[21]

Ranking

[edit]

At that place have been rankings of the significance of major historical figures. For case, Cesar A. Hidalgo and colleagues at the MIT Media Lab has calculated the memorability of historical figures using data such as the number of language editions for which there are articles for each person, the pageviews received, and other factors. These lists are available at MIT’s Pantheon project.

Historical truth

[edit]

It is sometimes hard to discern whether obviously historical figures from the primeval periods did in fact exist, due to the lack of records. Even with more recent personages, stories or anecdotes about the person often accumulate that accept no basis in fact. Although the external aspects of a historical figure may be well documented, their inner nature can only be a subject of speculation. It can besides not be only a subject of speculation as many historical figures such as Hitler explicitly articulated their thoughts and intentions. With religious figures, oftentimes the subjects of voluminous literature, separating “fact” from “belief” can be difficult if not impossible.

Ancient figures

[edit]

With older texts it can exist difficult to be sure whether a person in the text is, in fact, a historical figure. “Wisdom literature” from early middle-eastern cultures (such as the Book of Job), mainly consist of verbal expositions or discussions that must be considered the work of the author, rather than the graphic symbol supposedly speaking. Information technology may still be possible to place a effigy in such texts with a historical figure known from some other context, and the text may be taken as informative most this effigy, fifty-fifty if not verified by an independent source.[22]
On the other hand, a text may include realistic settings and references to historical people, while the central character may or may not be a historical figure.[23]

Fables

[edit]

Lady Godiva was a historical effigy, but there is no testify that the legend of her riding naked through the streets is true (Lady Godiva
painting, 1897 by John Collier)

Napoleon spoke of history equally beingness a legend which had been agreed upon:– “la legend convenue qu’on appellera 50’histoire“.[24]
Smashing figures of the past have stories told about them which grow in the telling, and and so become myths and legends which may dominate or displace the more prosaic historical facts well-nigh them. For case, some aboriginal chroniclers said that the Emperor Nero fiddled while Rome burned, but Tacitus disputed this by maxim the stories were just malicious rumours. Similarly, there is no skilful testify that Marie Antoinette ever said “permit them eat cake”, or that Lady Godiva rode naked through the streets of Coventry.[25]

Personality

[edit]

Thomas Carlyle pointed out that even to the person living it, every life “remains in so many points unintelligible”. The historian must struggle when writing biographies, “the very facts of which, to say nothing of the purport of them, we know non, and cannot know!”[26]
Some psychologists have sought to understand the personalities of historical figures through clues about the mode in which they were raised. Nonetheless, this theoretical psychoanalytic approach is non supported empirically. An alternative approach, favored past psychobiographers such every bit William Runyan, is to explain the personality of the historical figure in terms of their life history. This arroyo has the advantage of recognizing that personality may evolve over time in response to events.[27]

3 corking historical figures — Confucius presenting the Buddha to Lao Tsu. They are all of such artifact that the historical facts nigh them are now overlaid with centuries of myth and legend.

Religious figures

[edit]

With historical religious figures, fact and belief may be hard to disentangle. In that location are cultural differences in the handling of historical figures. Thus the Chinese can recognise that Mencius or Confucius were historical individuals, while also endowing them with sanctity. In Indian Hinduism, on the other hand, figures such as Krishna or Rama are virtually always seen as embodiments of gods rather than as historical people. The Nirvana Sutra states: “Do non rely on the human being but on the Dharma.” A teacher such as Gautama Buddha is thus treated well-nigh exclusively as a lesser god rather than a historical figure.[28]

East. P. Sanders, author of
The Historical Figure of Jesus, called Jesus of Nazareth “i of the almost important figures in man history”.[29]
Diverse writers have struggled to present “historical” views of Jesus, equally opposed to views distorted by belief.[30]
When writing about this subject, a historian who relies only on sources other than the New Testament may exist criticized for implying that it is not a sufficient source of information about the subject.[31]

The theologian Martin Kähler is known for his work
Der sogenannte historische Jesus und der geschichtliche, biblische Christus
(The so-chosen historical Jesus, and the historic, biblical Christ). He clearly distinguished betwixt “the Jesus of history” and “the Christ of faith”.[32]
Some historians openly acknowledge bias, which may anyway exist unavoidable. Paul Hollenback says he writes about the historical Jesus, “…in society to overthrow, not but correct, the mistake called Christianity.” Some other historian who has written about Jesus, Frederick Gaiser, says, “historical investigation is part and bundle of biblical faith.”[thirty]

Political appropriation

[edit]

A historical effigy may be interpreted to support political aims. In France in the get-go half of the seventeenth century, there was an outpouring of writing most Joan of Arc, including seven biographies, three plays and an epic verse form. Joan had get a symbol of national pride and the Catholic faith, helping unite a country that had been divided by the recent wars of faith. The reality of the historical Joan was subordinated to the need for a symbol of feminine forcefulness, Christian virtue and resistance to the English.[33]
George Bernard Shaw, introducing his 1923 play
Saint Joan, discussed representations of Joan by other authors. He felt that William Shakespeare’s depiction in
Henry Half-dozen, Part one
was constrained from making her a “beautiful and romantic effigy” past political considerations. Voltaire’s version in his poem
La Pucelle d’Orléans
was also flawed by Voltaire’southward biases and Friedrich Schiller’s play
Dice Jungfrau von Orleans
“is not about Joan at all, and tin can hardly exist said to pretend to be.”[34]

A historical figure may be used to validate a politician’s claim to authority, where the modern leader shapes and exploits the ideas associated with the historical figure, which they are presumed to have inherited.[35]
Thus, Jesse Jackson has frequently evoked the spirit of Martin Luther King Jr.[36]
Fidel Castro often presented himself as following the path defined past José Martí.[37]
Hugo Chávez of Venezuela frequently identified himself with the historical figure Simón Bolívar, the liberator of Due south America from Castilian rule.[38]

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Georg Hegel believed in the office of the state in guaranteeing individual liberties, and his views were therefore rejected by the German Nazi Political party, who considered him dangerously liberal and perhaps a proto-Marxist. On the other hand, Adolf Hitler identified himself as a Hegelian globe historical figure, and justified his deportment on this basis.[39]

In education

[edit]

Plato used historical figures in his writing, but just to illustrate his points. Xenophon used Cyrus the Neat in the aforementioned manner. When Plato apparently quotes Socrates in
The Republic, it is only to add dramatic issue to the presentation of his own thought.[forty]
For this reason, Plato’s writings on Socrates tell us little, at to the lowest degree directly, about Socrates. The historical figure is used simply equally a device for communicating Plato’s ideas.[forty]
In classical Rome, students of rhetoric had to primary the
suasoria
— a form of declamation in which they wrote the soliloquy of a historical effigy who was debating a critical course of activity. For example, the poet Juvenal wrote a speech for the dictator Sulla, in which he was counselled to retire. The poet Ovid enjoyed this practice more than the other final challenge — the
controversia.[41]

The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche wrote an influential essay “On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life”. He said “the unhistorical and historical are necessary in equal mensurate for the health of an individual, of a people and of a culture.”[42]
Nietzsche identifies three approaches to history, each with dangers. The monumental approach describes the glories of the past, often focusing on heroic figures similar Elizabeth I of England, King Robert the Bruce or Louis Pasteur. Past treating these figures as models, the pupil is tempted to consider that there can be nobody of such stature today. The antiquarian view examines the past in minute and reverent detail, turning its back on the nowadays. The critical arroyo challenges traditional views, even though they may exist valid.[43]

Historical figures may today be simulated every bit animated pedagogical agents to teach history and foreign culture. An example is Freudbot, which acted the part of Sigmund Freud for psychology students. When a variety of simulated grapheme types were tried as educational agents, students rated historical figures as the most engaging.[44]
There are gender differences in the perception of historical figures. When mod US schoolchildren were asked to roleplay or illustrate historical stereotypes, boys tended to focus upon male figures exclusively while girls showed more varied family groupings.[45]

In branding

[edit]

Using historical figures in marketing communicationsn and in branding is a new area of marketing enquiry only historical figures’ names were used to promote products as early on equally in the Middle Ages.[46]

Historical figure make is using famous historical person in branding, for case Mozartkugel, Chopin (vodka) or Café Einstein https://www.cafeeinstein.com/.

Historical figure is a person who lived in the past and whose deeds exerted a meaning touch on on other people’s lives and consciousness. These figures are attributed with certain features that are a compilation of the actual values they proclaimed and the manner they were perceived by others. This perception evolves and subsequent generations read the biography of a given historical effigy in their own way through their own knowledge and experience. In order to determine the popularity of the commercialisation of historical figures, a written report was conducted at the beginning of 2014 on the number of trademark protection applications filed with the Patent Office of the Commonwealth of Poland equally a measure of entrepreneurs’ involvement in this activity. The names of 300 most prominent Shine historical figures
[47]
were considered. The study showed that over 21% of the names analysed were recorded in the trademark register. 1,033 trademark protection applications were filed for 64 names out of the 300 historical figures investigated [Aldona Lipka, 2015,[48]]. The greatest number of trademark protection applications were recorded for Mieszko (295), followed by Nicolaus Copernicus (250), John III Sobieski (94) and Chopin (81).

In art and literature

[edit]

Realist historical fiction

[edit]

There is a huge body of historical fiction, where the text includes both imaginary and factual elements. In early English literature, Robin Hood was a fictional graphic symbol, simply the historical King Richard I of England also appears.[49]
William Shakespeare[a]
wrote plays about people who were historical figures in his day, such as
Julius Caesar. He did not nowadays these people as pure history, but dramatised their lives every bit a commentary about the people and politics of his ain time.[51]
Napoleon figured in Victor Hugo’southward 1862 archetype
Les Misérables.[52]
There are many more than examples.

The compiler of a survey of historical novels in the 1920s claimed that the “appearance of reality … is the great amuse of the historical novel.” He went on to assert, regarding novels nearly periods of which little is known, that “the danger is that the very elements which add to our interest in the tale as such will arrive to mislead u.s.a. in our conception of the period dealt with”.[53]
Traditionally the treatment of historical figures in fiction was realistic in style and respectful of fact. A historical novel would be true to the facts known most the catamenia in which the novel is set, a biographical novel would follow the facts that are known virtually the protagonist’s life, and a “roman à clef” would try to give an authentic interpretation of what is known well-nigh a public figure’s private life. In each genre, the novelist would avert introducing any elements that were clearly in conflict with the facts.[54]

A writer may be handicapped by his readers’ preconceptions about a historical person, which may or may not be accurate, and the facts about the historical person may as well conflict with the novelist’southward plot requirements.[55]
According to the Marxist philosopher György Lukács in his 1937 book on
The Historical Novel, “The ‘earth-historical private’ can only effigy as a minor grapheme in the [historical] novel because of the complexity and intricacy of the whole social-historical procedure.”[56]
As Jacobs observes, the “realist aesthetic” of the historical novel “assumes that a recognizable historical effigy in fiction must non ‘do things’ its model did not do in real life; information technology follows that historical figures tin be used only in very limited ways.”[57]
The writer of a traditional historical novel should therefore focus more than on the people who have been lost to history.[58]
A novelist such equally Sir Walter Scott or Leo Tolstoy (War and Peace) would draw historical events accurately. They would give rein to their imagination only in scenes that were non significant historically, when interactions with fictional characters could safely be introduced.[59]

Modern fiction

[edit]

More recently, however, starting with works such as
The Confessions of Nat Turner, and
Sophie’south Choice
by William Styron, the novelist has felt more free to introduce much larger amounts of purely imaginary particular about historical people.[54]
Due east. 50. Doctorow illustrates this different attitude when discussing his volume
Ragtime: “Certain details were so delicious that I was scrupulous nigh getting them right. Others … demanded to exist mythologized.” This reflects a changing mental attitude about the distinction between “fact” and “truth”, expressed by Ursule Molinaro when he makes his Cassandra say, “I’ve come every bit close to the truth as facts would let me … facts oppress the truth, which can exhale freely only in verse & art.”[60]

Other media

[edit]

Many films have depicted historical figures. Often the way in which the films interpret these figures and their times reflects the social and cultural values of the period in which the flick was made.[61]
Historical figures are familiar to the full general reader and so may be used in speculative fiction and so that readers curiosity at their advent in novel settings or with a fresh perspective.[62]
For instance, the time traveler The Doc has encountered numerous historical figures such as Marco Polo and Queen Elizabeth I in his adventures.[63]
They appeared most oftentimes when the television series first started, as it was directed at children and the use of historical figures in historical settings was intended to be educational.[64]

Meet as well

[edit]

  • Celebrity (the modern-twenty-four hour period equivalent)
  • Listing of oldest documents
  • List of historical drama films and series set in Well-nigh Eastern and Western civilization
  • List of biographical films
  • Historical figures sometimes considered autistic
  • List of historical opera characters
  • List of wealthiest historical figures
  • The Earth’s Billionaires
  • Persons of National Historic Significance (Canada)
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Notes

[edit]


  1. ^

    William Shakespeare was a historical figure himself, but as a biographer said, “Such materials as there are for Shakespeare’southward personal history, or for the history of anyone connected with him, have been gathered with the nigh loving and persevering industry. Unhappily, they amount to very lilliputian. Entries in municipal records, names in a will, a lease, or an inventory, tell hardly anything of the life or grapheme of the man. That orange has now been squeezed dry.”[50]

References

[edit]

Citations

[edit]


  1. ^

    Hagen 2012, p. 125.

  2. ^

    Van Doren 2008, p. 277.

  3. ^

    Karatani 2011, p. 20.

  4. ^

    Stewart 2007, p. 179.

  5. ^

    Magee 2001, p. 192.

  6. ^

    Cramer 2007, p. 272.

  7. ^

    Moses 2004, p. 5.

  8. ^

    Moses 2004, p. xv.

  9. ^

    Carneiro 1981, p. 188.

  10. ^

    Carneiro 1981, p. 188-189.
  11. ^


    a




    b



    White 2004, p. 52.

  12. ^

    Ben-Menahem 2011, p. chapter 9.

  13. ^

    Chakrabarti 2009, p. 158.

  14. ^

    Chen 2007, p. 37.

  15. ^

    Agassi 2008, p. 218.

  16. ^

    Agassi 2008, p. 152.

  17. ^

    Carlyle 1841, p. 47.

  18. ^

    Carlyle 2007, p. ix.

  19. ^

    Kerry & Colina 2010, p. 138.

  20. ^

    Hook 1943, p. xi.

  21. ^

    Hook 1943, p. 13.

  22. ^

    Longman & Enns 2008, p. 335.

  23. ^

    Longman & Enns 2008, p. 336.

  24. ^

    Napoleon & Auguste-Dieudonné 1823, p. 242.

  25. ^

    Andrews 2012.

  26. ^

    Kerry & Colina 2010, p. 133-134.

  27. ^

    Roberts 1996, p. 208.

  28. ^

    Yuasa & Kasulis 1987, p. 128.

  29. ^

    Powell 1998, p. 1.
  30. ^


    a




    b



    Powell 1998, p. iii.

  31. ^

    Habermas 1996, p. 11.

  32. ^

    Powell 1998, p. 4.

  33. ^

    Powers & Gale 1981, p. 1.

  34. ^

    Innes 1998, p. 208.

  35. ^

    Mixon 2009, p. lx.

  36. ^

    Mixon 2009, p. 51.

  37. ^

    Mixon 2009, p. 64.

  38. ^

    Mixon 2009, p. 125.

  39. ^

    Cobley 2002, p. 278.
  40. ^


    a




    b



    Anton & Preus 1971, p. 162.

  41. ^

    Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ideals, p. 212.

  42. ^

    Landy 2001, p. 2.

  43. ^

    Landy 2001, p. 3.

  44. ^

    Veletsianos 2010, p. sixteen.

  45. ^

    Fournier & Wineburg 1997, p. 160-185.

  46. ^

    Madow M., Private Ownership of Public Image: Popular Culture and Publicity Rights, vol. 81, California Law Review 125, 1993, p. 152.

  47. ^

    Grygiel A.(ed.), Encyklopedia sławnych Polaków, Publicat S.A., Poznań 2007.

  48. ^

    Lipka Aldona, Ograniczona racjonalność i heurystyki westward zachowaniach nabywców [w:] Thou. Wolska (ruby-red.), Współczesne problemy ekonomiczne, Zeszyty Naukowe nr 858, Wyd. Uniwersytet Szczeciński, Szczecin 2015. p. 265.(https://scholar.google.pl/citations?user=8g7DDDkAAAAJ&hl=pl&oi=ao)

  49. ^

    Nield 1929, p. xviii.

  50. ^

    Smith 1899, p. 7.

  51. ^

    Hattaway 2002, p. 16.

  52. ^

    Powers & Gale 1981, p. 65.

  53. ^

    Nield 1929, p. 19.
  54. ^


    a




    b



    Jacobs 1990, p. xv.

  55. ^

    Lukacs 1937, p. 168.

  56. ^

    Waters 2009, p. 113.

  57. ^

    Wyile 2002, p. 16.

  58. ^

    Waters 2009, p. 112.

  59. ^

    Wachtel 1995, p. 114.

  60. ^

    Jacobs 1990, p. xvii.

  61. ^

    Landy 2001, p. 1.

  62. ^

    Jacobs 1990, p. 111ff.

  63. ^

    Lawrence & Gee 2012.

  64. ^

    Chapman 2006, p. 19.

Sources

[edit]

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External links

[edit]


  • Media related to Historical persons at Wikimedia Commons



Which Historical Figure or Concept Does Man Symbolize

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_figure

Originally posted 2022-08-02 07:49:32.

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