Which Composer Invented the Chorale Concerto.
, occasionally known as “song concerto” or “church building concerto”) is a genre of sacred music which arose in the Russian Empire in the center of the seventeenth century and remained popular into the early on nineteenth century.
Choral concertos are brusk compositions for unaccompanied voices, typically containing multiple and singled-out sections, with occasional soloistic interludes.[two]
The text of the compositions was usually selected from the psalms and other biblical texts, with occasional settings from banquet day sequences. Choral concertos were intended for liturgical use; they were sung at the point in the Divine Liturgy when clergy were taking Holy Communion, before the Communion of the faithful.
Despite their name, they do not necessarily have to conform to the concerto style in Western classical music. The works were extremely varied in style, incorporating such diverse elements as folk music, popular song, trip the light fantastic toe, and march music;
this adaptability contributed to the longevity and popularity of the choral concerto as a genre.
Eastern Christian liturgical music has ancient Byzantine roots, with a particular focus on chants. Traditions such as Russian Znamenny dirge, Ukrainian Kievan dirge, and Carpatho-Rusyn Prostopinije are unique within Christendom, and are a distinguishing feature of Russian, Ukrainian, and Carpatho-Rusyn liturgical music.
The sacred chants and the polyphony (multi-part singing) institute in much folk and secular music were difficult to reconcile.
The Eastern Churches somewhen relaxed their restrictions on the functioning of polyphonic dirge, and multi-part church music began to develop in the seventeenth century. However, the Greek Orthodox Church building ban on the use of musical instruments in church remained in event.
This prohibition was a upshot of a want to remain true-blue to the aboriginal Byzantine tradition of a cappella singing.
In the long eighteenth century,
Orthodox church music in the Russian Empire underwent a flow of Westernisation; the virtually-ubiquity of Italian music contributed to this,
as did the transmission of polyphonic singing from Cosmic Poland and Republic of lithuania to Orthodox Christians and Byzantine Catholics in Ukraine and Russia.
The popularity of this music, as well as the widespread acceptance of polyphonic church building music, led to an nearly complete cessation in the use of traditional chant.
Rising nationalism contributed to a deeper interest in folk music, from both ideological and artful viewpoints. The eighteenth century saw the adoption of folk tunes into so-called “loftier genres”, such as symphonies, cantatas, oratorios and
opera seria. However, the desire to create a high “para-liturgical” genre, comparable with Western European masses, requiems and passions, remained unfulfilled.
The genre of choral concertos developed out of the ban on the apply of instruments, the ascent of polyphony as the premiere class of song music, the near-demise of traditional chant, and the demands past the Imperial Russian courtroom for “high art” in sacred music. Blending pop spiritual songs with elements from Western Classical music, polyphony became a unique form with “no substitute or alternative”.[viii]
While it evolved in Russia, due to the presence of Italian (Manfredini, Galuppi) as well as Italian-trained Ukrainian (Berezovsky, Bortniansky, Vedel) court composers, polyphony and the choral concerto have also been chosen “entirely Western… at odds with the character of previous Russian music”.
Choral concertos enjoyed their get-go period of popularity in the 1760s, during the Russian Enlightenment.[nine]
The Ukrainian composer Maksym Berezovsky was the primeval prominent composer of the form, contributing at to the lowest degree eighteen concertos to the repertoire. Other composers included Stepan Degtyarev, four of whose concertos are all the same performed today.[ten]
Artemy Vedel, another Ukrainian, composed many choral concertos, the best known being
Na rekakh Vavilonskikh
(“Past the waters of Babylon”).
The most prolific composer of choral concertos was Dmytro Bortniansky, a Ukrainian composer who had studied in Italian republic. He composed 35 concertos for single chorus, x concertos for double chorus, and 14 “concerto-like” settings of
Tyebe Boga hvalim
(“Nosotros praise Thee, O God”).
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, tasked with editing Bortnianksy’southward vast oeuvre in 1881, ruefully asked “O, this Bortniansky! Why did he write so much?!”
Bortniansky equanimous throughout the 1780s and 1790s, becoming a master of the highly adjustable nature of the genre.[iv]
His terminal concertos, composed in the 1810s, corresponded with the demise of the farthermost popularity of the genre.
Contributions to the field were limited after Bortniansky’s decease. Alexei Lvov composed v choral concertos, none of which are well-known today. However, he did set several Lenten texts in a manner which linked Bortniansky’s fashion with an early on Romantic sensibility.[xiv]
Alexander Arkhangelsky composed xx concertos in a like “emotionally charged manner”.
Pavel Chesnokov, Alexander Kastalsky, Alexander Gretchaninov, Maximilian Steinberg, and Sergei Rachmaninoff were amongst the many late Tsarist and early Soviet-era composers who continued the tradition of choral concertos. Nether their chapters, the form expanded in expressiveness and proportion.
Later choral concertos
A number of later Russian composers paid homage to the sometime-fashioned style of choral concertos. A selected list is provided.
by Pavel Grechaninov
by Maximilian Steinberg.
, Vadim Salmanov. Won the country Glinka Prize.[sixteen]
Kontsert pamyati A. A. Yulova
, Georgy Sviridov. In retentiveness of A. A. Yulova.
Concerto for Mixed Chorus, Alfred Schnittke. Sung to texts drawn from Armenian Prayer book of Saint Gregory of Narek.[eighteen]
, Vladimir Tarnopolsky. Based on Catholic themes.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 10.
Morozan 2013, p. 436.
Ritzarev 2012, p. 41.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 160.
Frolova-Walker 2004, p. 123.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 23.
Ritzarev 2012, pp. 40–41.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 7.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 79.
Morozan 2013, p. 147.
Morozan 2013, p. 437.
Sylvester 2002, p. 151.
Ritzarev 2006, p. 304.
Morozan 2013, pp. 437–438.
Morozan 2013, pp. 438–440.
Randel 1996, p. 780.
Unger 2010, p. 426.
Kholopova 1997, p. 139.
Tsenova 1997, p. 258.
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National Identity in Russian Civilization: An Introduction. ISBN9780521024297.
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Secret Music from the Former USSR. ISBN9783718658213.
Morozan, Vladimir (2013). “Russian Choral Repertoire”. In Di Grazia, Donna One thousand (ed.).
Nineteenth-Century Choral Music. ISBN9781136294099.
Randel, Don M. (1996).
The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music
. Harvard University Press.
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Eighteenth Century Russian Music. ISBN9780754634669.
Ritzarev, Marina (2012). “Between the Field and the Salon”. In Sheinberg, Esti (ed.).
Music Semiotics: A Network of Significations. ISBN9781409411024.
Shrock, Dennis (2009).
Choral Repertoire. ISBN9780199886876.
Sylvester, Richard D. (2002).
Tchaikovsky’s Complete Songs: A Companion with Texts and Translations. ISBN0253216761.
Tsenova, Valeria (1997). “The “culturology” of Vladimir Tarnopolsky”. In Tsenova, Valeria (ed.).
Underground Music from the Former USSR. ISBN9783718658213.
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Historical Lexicon of Choral Music. ISBN9780810873926.
Which Composer Invented the Chorale Concerto