What Were Major Causes of the Dust Bowl Apex

What Were Major Causes of the Dust Bowl Apex.

dust bowl
Three girls modelling various dust basin masks, which were worn in areas where the dust in the air acquired breathing difficulties, circa 1935.
Bert Garai/Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

When the drought hitting the Gre­at Plains, roughly one-tertiary of the farmers left their homes and headed to the mild climate of California in search of migrant work. Known as the
Okies
— the nickname referred to any poor migrant from the American Southwest since only about 20 percent were from Oklahoma — they left behind the parched lands and economic despair. Many were used to fiscal stability and home amenities such as indoor plumbing, but had become fin­ancially indebted afterward purchasing mechanized farming equipment and suffering crop failures. They faced foreclosure on dwelling house and farm.

California didn’t welcome the influx of Okies. Since the number of migrant workers outnumbered the available jobs, tensions grew between Californians and laborers, and public health concerns rose equally California’s infrastructure became overtaxed.

In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt enacted the showtime of several mortgage and farming relief acts under the New Deal aimed to reduce foreclosures and continue farms afloat during the drought. But by the cease of 1934, roughly 35 million acres (fourteen million hectares) of farmland were ruined, and the topsoil covering 100 one thousand thousand acres (xl million hectares) had blown away [source: Dyer].

Under the Taylor Grazing Human action of 1934, the regime reserved 140 meg acres (57 million hectares) every bit protected federal lands. Grazing and planting would be monitored to encourage land rehabilitation and conservation. Additionally, in the early 1930s, the government launched the
Civil Conservation Corps
(CCC), i of the almost successful New Deal programs. Three million young men volunteered for forestry and conservation work for the CCC. They were called Roosevelt’s “Forest Army,” and they planted trees, dug ditches and built reservoirs — piece of work that would contribute to flood control, water conservation and prevent further soil erosion.

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Additionally, between 1933 and 1935 many more programs and agencies were introduced specifically to assist people affected by the Dust Basin, including efforts like the Emergency Relief Cribbing Act, the Resettlement Administration, the Farm Security Administration, the Land Utilization Programme and the Drought Relief Service.

The Works Progress Administration (WPA), a program started under the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act, is ane of the best-known New Deal programs. The WPA was a work relief program that employed more than 8.5 million people to build roads, bridges, airports, public parks and buildings.

­Information technology took millions of tons of dirt and debris bravado from the Plains all the way into Washington D.C., known as “Black Sunday,” to move Congress to laissez passer the Soil Conservation Act and establish the
Soil Conservation Service
(SCS) under the Section of Agriculture.

The SCS (now the Natural Resources Conservation Service) promoted healthy soil management and farming practices, and paid farmers to put such practices to work on their farms. The legacy of the Service’southward practices such every bit irrigation, crop diversity and no-till farming continue in the Plains today.

­­The 1930s Grit Basin didn’t inoculate the United States from another such ecological disaster, though. More than 30 percent of North America is barren or semi-arid land, with near 40 percent of the continental United States (17 Western states) vulnerable to
desertification
[source: Alexander]. Sustainable agriculture and soil conservation practices could help avoid another dust bowl, but experts aren’t sure that such measures will be enough if extended and severe drought revisits the Great Plains.

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Originally Published: Sep 17, 2008

What Were Major Causes of the Dust Bowl Apex

Source: https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/green-science/dust-bowl-cause.htm

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