What Happens When Nitrogen Fills Its Valence Shell

What Happens When Nitrogen Fills Its Valence Shell.

Chemistry of Nitrogen (Z=7)

  • Page ID
    565
  • Nitrogen is present in almost all proteins and plays important roles in both biochemical applications and industrial applications. Nitrogen forms strong bonds considering of its ability to class a triple bail with its cocky, and other elements. Thus, there is a lot of energy in the compounds of nitrogen. Before 100 years ago, little was known about nitrogen. Now, nitrogen is commonly used to preserve food, and as a fertilizer.

    Introduction

    Nitrogen is found to accept either 3 or 5 valence electrons and lies at the acme of Group 15 on the periodic tabular array. Information technology can have either three or 5 valence electrons because information technology tin can bond in the outer 2p and 2s orbitals. Molecular nitrogen (\(N_2\)) is not reactive at standard temperature and pressure and is a colorless and odorless gas.

    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\)

    :
    A Bohr diagram of the nitrogen atom.

    Nitrogen is a not-metal element that occurs well-nigh abundantly in the temper, nitrogen gas (N
    2
    ) comprises 78.1% of the volume of the Earth’s air. It only appears in 0.002% of the globe’s crust past mass. Compounds of nitrogen are institute in foods, explosives, poisons, and fertilizers. Nitrogen makes up DNA in the form of nitrogenous bases as well as in neurotransmitters. It is one of the largest industrial gases, and is produced commercially equally a gas and a liquid.

    Table 1: General Properties of Nitrogen
    Proper noun and Symbol Nitrogen, N
    Category not-metallic
    Atomic Weight 14.0067
    Group fifteen
    Electron Configuration 1s2
    2s2
    2p3
    Valence Electrons 2, 5
    Phase Gas

    History

    Nitrogen, which makes upwards about 78% of our atmosphere, is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and chemically unreactive gas at room temperature. Information technology is named from the Greek nitron + genes for soda forming. For many years during the 1500’s and 1600’s scientists hinted that there was another gas in the atmosphere besides carbon dioxide and oxygen. It was not until the 1700’s that scientists could prove there was in fact some other gas that took up mass in the atmosphere of the Globe.

    Discovered in 1772 by Daniel Rutherford (and independently by others such every bit Priestly and Cavendish) who was able to remove oxygen and carbon dioxide from a independent tube total of air. He showed that there was residual gas that did not back up combustion like oxygen or carbon dioxide. While his experiment was the one that proved that nitrogen existed, other experiments were too going in London where they called the substance “burnt” or “dephlogisticated air”.

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    Nitrogen is the fourth nigh abundant element in humans and it is more abundant in the known universe than carbon or silicon. Well-nigh commercially produced nitrogen gas is recovered from liquefied air. Of that amount, the majority is used to manufacture ammonia (\(NH_3\)) via the Haber process. Much is besides converted to nitric acid (\(HNO_3\)).

    Isotopes

    Nitrogen has ii naturally occurring isotopes,
    nitrogen-14
    and
    nitrogen-fifteen,
    which can be separated with chemic exchanges or thermal diffusion. Nitrogen also has isotopes with 12, 13, 16, 17 masses, but they are radioactive.

    • Nitrogen xiv
      is the most abundant form of nitrogen and makes up more than 99% of all nitrogen found on Earth. It is a stable compound and is non-radioactive. Nitrogen-fourteen has the most practical uses, and is found in agricultural practices, food preservation, biochemicals, and biomedical research. Nitrogen-14 is establish in affluence in the atmosphere and among many living organisms. Information technology has 5 valence electrons and is not a good electrical conductor.
    • Nitrogen-15
      is the other stable form of nitrogen. It is frequently used in medical research and preservation. The element is non-radioactive and therefore can likewise be sometimes used in agricultural practices. Nitrogen-15 is also used in brain research, specifically nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), because unlike nitrogen-xiv (nuclear spin of 1), it has a nuclear spin of 1/ii which has benefits when it comes to observing MRI research and NMR observations. Lastly, nitrogen-15 tin can be used equally label or in some proteins in biology. Scientists mainly employ this chemical compound for research purposes and accept not nevertheless seen its full potential for uses in brain research.

    Compounds

    The two most common compounds of nitrogen are Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) and Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3). These two compounds are formed by decomposing organic matter that has potassium or sodium nowadays and are oftentimes plant in fertilizers and byproducts of industrial waste material. Near nitrogen compounds accept a positive Gibbs complimentary energy (i.e., reactions are non spontaneous).

    Nitrogen bond.png
    Effigy \(\PageIndex{2}\)
    : Lewis Dot structure of molecular nitrogen

    The dinitrogen molecule (\(N_2\)) is an “unusually stable” chemical compound, especially because nitrogen forms a triple bond with itself. This triple bond is difficult hard to break. For dinitrogen to follow the octet rule, information technology must have a triple bond. Nitrogen has a total of 5 valence electrons, and then doubling that, we would have a full of ten valence electrons with two nitrogen atoms. The octet requires an atom to have 8 total electrons in lodge to have a total valence shell, therefore it needs to have a triple bond. The chemical compound is too very inert, since it has a triple bond. Triple bonds are very hard to intermission, so they continue their full valence shell instead of reacting with other compounds or atoms. Call up of it this way, each triple bail is like a rubber band, with three rubber bands, the nitrogen atoms are very attracted to each other.

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    Nitrides

    Nitrides are compounds of nitrogen with a less electronegative atom; in other words it’s a compound with atoms that have a less full valence vanquish. These compounds form with lithium and Group 2 metals. Nitrides usually has an oxidation country of -iii.

    \[3Mg + N_2 \rightarrow Mg_3N_2 \label{ane}\]

    When mixed with water, nitrogen will form ammonia and, this nitride ion acts as a very strong base.

    \[Due north + 3H_2O_{(50)} \rightarrow NH_3 + 3OH^-_{(aq)} \label{two}\]

    When nitrogen forms with other compounds it primarily forms covalent bonds. These are normally washed with other metals and look like: MN, MiiiN, and Thousand4N. These compounds are typically hard, inert, and take high melting points because nitrogen’s ability to form triple covalent bonds.

    Ammonium Ions

    Nitrogen goes through fixation past reaction with hydrogen gas over a catalyst. This process is used to produce ammonia. As mentioned earlier, this procedure allows us to utilise nitrogen every bit a fertilizer because it breaks down the potent triple bond held by N2
    .
    The famous Haber-Bosch process for synthesis of ammonia looks similar this:

    \[N_2 + 3H_2 \rightarrow 2NH_3 \label{3}\]

    Ammonia is a base and is also used in typical acid-base reactions.

    \[2NH_{3(aq)} + H_2SO_4 \rightarrow (NH_4)_2SO_{4(aq)} \characterization{4}\]

    Nitride ions are very strong bases, specially in aqueous solutions.

    Oxides of Nitrogen

    Nitrides use a variety of unlike oxidation numbers from +1 to +5 to for oxide compounds. Almost all the oxides that course are gasses, and exist at 25 degrees Celsius. Oxides of nitrogen are acidic and easily attach protons.

    \[N_2O_5 + H_2O \rightarrow 2HNO_{3 (aq)} \label{v}\]

    The oxides play a large role in living organisms. They tin can be useful, however dangerous.

    • Dinitrogen monoxide (North2O) is a coldhearted used at the dentist every bit a laughing gas.
    • Nitrogen dioxide (NOii) is harmful. It binds to hemoglobin molecules non allowing the molecule to release oxygen throughout the body. Information technology is released from cars and is very harmful.
    • Nitrate (NO3
      ) is a polyatomic ion.
    • The more unstable nitrogen oxides allow for infinite travel.
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    Hydrides

    Hydrides of nitrogen include ammonia (NHiii) and hyrdrazine (N2Hfour).

    • In aqueous solution, ammonia forms the ammonium ion which we described higher up and it has special amphiprotic backdrop.
    • Hyrdrazine is commonly used as rocket fuel

    Applications of Nitrogen

    • Nitrogen provides a blanketing for our temper for the production of chemicals and electronic compartments.
    • Nitrogen is used as fertilizer in agriculture to promote growth.
    • Pressurized gas for oil.
    • Refrigerant (such as freezing food fast)
    • Explosives.
    • Metals handling/protectant via exposure to nitrogen instead of oxygen

    References

    1. Petrucci, Ralph H, William Harwood, and F. Herring.
      General Chemical science: Principles and Modern Applications.
      8thursday
      Ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc, 2001.
    2. Sadava, David et al.
      LIFE: The Science of Biology.
      Eighth Edition. Sinauer Acquaintance.
    3. Thomas, Jacob.
      Nitrogen and its Applications to Mod Hereafter
      .
      San Diego State University Press: 2007.

    Problems

    • Complete and rest the following equations

    Due north2

    + ___H2→ ___NH_

    H2N2O2
    → ?

    2NH3
    + CO2
    → ?

    __Mg + Nii
    → Mg_Northward_

    NiiH5
    + H2O → ?

    • What are the dissimilar isotopes of Nitrogen?
    • List the oxiadation states of diverse nitrogen oxides: N2O, NO, N2Othree
      ,
      N2O4
      ,
      N2O5
    • List the dissimilar elements that Nitrogen will react with to make information technology basic or acidic….
    • Uses of nitrogen

    Answers

    • Complete and balance the following equations

    N2

    + 3Hii→ 2NHthree(Haber process)

    H2Northward2O2
    → HNO

    2NH3
    + CO2
    → (NH2)2CO + H2O

    2Mg + 3N2
    → Mg3N2

    N2H5
    + HiiO → N2+ H+
    + H2O

    • What are the different isotopes of Nitrogen?

    Stable forms include nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15

    • Listing the oxidation states of various nitrogen oxides: +1, +2, +three, +four, +5 respectively
    • List the dissimilar elements that Nitrogen volition react with to brand information technology basic or acidic :Nitride ion is a strong base when reacted with water, Ammonia is mostly a weak acrid
    • Uses of nitrogen include coldhearted, Refrigerant, metal protector

    Contributors

    • Adam Wandell (UC Davis)

    What Happens When Nitrogen Fills Its Valence Shell

    Source: https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Inorganic_Chemistry/Supplemental_Modules_and_Websites_%28Inorganic_Chemistry%29/Descriptive_Chemistry/Elements_Organized_by_Block/2_p-Block_Elements/Group_15:_The_Nitrogen_Family/Z007_Chemistry_of_Nitrogen_%28Z7%29

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