# What Does It Mean if Keq 1

What Does It Mean if Keq 1. ## Reaction rates

• The reaction rate is defined as the rate of change in the concentration of reactants or products. ie. how fast a reactant gets used upwardly, and how fast a production gets produced.
• Charge per unit = –ΔReactant/ΔTime
= how fast a reactant disappears.
• Rate =
ΔProduct/ΔTime
= how fast a production forms.
• The unit for rate is molarity per second, or M/due south.

## Dependence of reaction rate upon concentration of reactants; charge per unit law

• The rate law is the equation that describes the rate = the product of reactants raised to some exponents.
• aA + bB → cC + dD
• If the above reaction is single-pace, and then rate = thou[A]a[B]b
• If the above reaction is the rate-determining pace of a multi-pace reaction, so the rate of the multi-step reaction = grand[A]a[B]b
• If the higher up reaction is a multi-step reaction, then charge per unit = 1000[A]x[B]y, where x and y are unknowns that stand for to the rate-determining step.
• To determine the rate law, you refer to a table of rates vs reactant concentrations.
•  [A] (M) [B] (M) [C] (Yard) rate (M/south) 1 1 1 ane 2 1 1 4 1 2 i 2 ane 1 2 ane
• r = k[A]x[B]y[C]z
• From this table, a 2x increase in [A] corresponds to a 4x increase in the rate. 210
= 4, and then ten = 2.
• A 2x increase in [B] corresponds to a 2x increase in the rate. twoy
= 2, so y = 1.
• A 2x increase in [C] corresponds to 1x (no modify) in rate. 2z
= ane, and then z = 0.
• r = k[A]ii[B]i[C]
• r = yard[A]2[B]
• rate constant
• The k in the rate law is the rate abiding.
• The rate constant is an empirically determined value that changes with different reactions and reaction conditions.
• reaction order
• Reaction lodge = sum of all exponents of the concentration variables in the rate law.
• Reaction social club in A = the exponent of [A]
•  Reaction Type Reaction Order Charge per unit Law(s) Unimolecular i r = grand[A] Bimolecular 2 r = thousand[A]two, r = grand[A][B] Termolecular 3 r = grand[A]iii, r = g[A]ii[B], r = thousand[A][B][C] Zero order reaction r = k

## Rate determining step

• The slowest step of a multi-step reaction is the rate determining stride.
• The rate of the whole reaction = the charge per unit of the rate determining step.
• The rate law corresponds to the components of the charge per unit determining step.
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## Dependence of reaction rate on temperature

• Activation energy
• Activated complex or transition state
• Activated circuitous = what’due south present at the transition land.
• In the transition state, bonds that are going to form are simply beginning to grade, and bonds that are going to break are just beginning to break.
• The transition state is the peak of the energy profile.
• The transition country can become either fashion, back to the reactants, or forwards to form the products.
• Yous can’t isolate the transition land. Don’t misfile the transition state with a reaction intermediate, which is one that y’all can isolate.
• Interpretation of energy profiles showing energies of reactants and products, activation energy, ΔH for the reaction
• • The activation energy is the free energy it takes to push the reactants up to the transition state.
• ΔH is the departure between the reactant H and the product H (net change in H for the reaction).
• H is oestrus of enthalpy.
• Exothermic reaction = negative ΔH
• Endothermic reaction = positive ΔH
• Arrhenius equation

## Kinetic command versus thermodynamic command of a reaction

• A reaction can have two possible products: kinetic vs thermodynamic product.
• Kinetic production = lower activation free energy, formed preferentially at lower temperature.
• Thermodynamic product = lower (more than favorable/negative) ΔG, formed preferentially at college temperature.
• • Thermodynamics tells you whether a reaction will occur. In other words, whether it is spontaneous or non.
• A reaction will occur if ΔG is negative.
• ΔG = ΔH – TΔS
 Factors favoring a reaction Factors disfavoring a reaction Existence exothermic (-ΔH) Being endothermic (+ΔH) Increase in entropy (positive ΔS) Subtract in entropy (negative ΔS) Temperature is a double-edged sword. High temperatures dilate the effect of the ΔS term, whether that is favoring the reaction (+ΔS) or disfavoring the reaction (-ΔS)
• Kinetics tells you how fast a reaction will occur.
• A reaction volition occur faster if it has a lower activation energy.

## Catalysts; the special case of enzyme catalysis

• Catalysts speed upwardly a reaction without getting itself used up.
• Enzymes are biological catalysts.
• Catalysts/enzymes act past lowering the activation energy, which speeds up both the forward and the reverse reaction.
• Catalysts/enzymes alter kinetics, not thermodynamics.
• Catalysts/enzymes help a arrangement to attain its equilibrium faster, just does not alter the position of the equilibrium.
• Catalysts/enzymes increment m (rate constant, kinetics), but does not alter Keq (equilibrium).
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## Equilibrium in reversible chemical reactions

• Police force of Mass Activity
• The Law of Mass Action is the ground for the equilibrium constant.
• What the Law of Mass Action says is basically, the charge per unit of a reaction depends only on the concentration of the pertinent substances participating in the reaction.
• Using the law of mass activeness, you can derive the equilibrium abiding by setting the forrard reaction rate = reverse reaction charge per unit, which is what happens at equilibrium.
• For the unmarried-step reaction: aA + bB <–> cC + dD
= rreverse
• kfrontwards[A]a[B]b
= greverse[C]c[D]d
• thousandforward
/kreverse

=
[C]c[D]d
/[A]a[B]b
• Keq =
[C]c[D]d
/[A]a[B]b
• This holds true for unmarried and multi-footstep reactions, the MCAT volition not ask y’all to bear witness why this is then.
• the equilibrium constant
• There are 2 ways of getting Keq
• From an equation, Keq =
[C]c[D]d
/[A]a[B]b
• From thermodynamics, ΔG° = -RT ln (Keq)
• Derivation: ΔG = 0 at equilibrium.
• ΔG = ΔG° + RT ln Q
• 0 = ΔG° + RT ln Qat equilibrium
• ΔG° = -RT ln Qat equilibrium
• At equilibrium:
• ΔG = 0
• rforrard
= rbackward
• Q = Keq
• Keq is a ratio of one thousandforward
over grandbackward

• If Keq is much greater than 1 (For instance if Keq = 103), then the position of equilibrium is to the right; more products are present at equilibrium.
• If Keq = ane, then the position of equilibrium is in the center, the corporeality of products is roughly equal to the corporeality of reactants at equilibrium.
• If Keq is much smaller than 1 (For example if Keq = x-3), then the position of equilibrium is to the left; more reactants are present at equilibrium.
• The reaction quotient, Q, is the same as Keq except Q can be used for whatsoever point in the reaction, not just at the equilibrium.
• If Q < Keq, so the reaction is at a point where it is still moving to the right in order to reach equilibrium.
• If Q = Keq, the reaction is at equilibrium.
• If Q > Keq, then the reaction is too far right, and is moving back left in order to reach equilibrium.
• The reaction naturally seeks to reach its equilibrium
• awarding of LeChatelier’south principle
• LeChatelier’southward principle: if you lot knock a system off its equilibrium, it will readjust itself to reachieve equilibrium.
• A reaction at equilibrium doesn’t move forward or backward, but the application of LeChatlier’south principle means that you can disrupt a reaction at equilibrium and then that it will proceed forward or backward in order to restore the equilibrium.
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## Relationship of the equilibrium constant and standard free energy modify

• ΔG = ΔG° + RT ln Q
• Fix ΔG = 0 at equilibrium.
• Q becomes Keq at equilibrium.
• 0 = ΔG° + RT ln (Keq)
• ΔG° = -RT ln (Keq)

## What Does It Mean if Keq 1

Source: http://mcat-review.org/rate-kinetics-equilibrium.php

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