The Figures Below Refer to a Herd of Water Buffalo

Species of large bovid originating in Southward and Southeast Asia and China

Water buffalo
Water buffaloes in Laos

Conservation status

Domesticated

Scientific classification

edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family unit: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bubalus
Species:


B. bubalis

Binomial proper noun



Bubalus bubalis


(Linnaeus, 1758)

2004buffalo.PNG
Global distribution of the water buffalo in 2004
Synonyms

Bos bubalis
Linnaeus, 1758

The
water buffalo
(Bubalus bubalis), also called the
domestic water buffalo
or
Asian water buffalo, is a big bovid originating in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Today, it is likewise institute in Europe, Australia, North America, S America and some African countries.[1]
Two extant types of water buffalo are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria: the
river buffalo
of the Indian subcontinent and further west to the Balkans, Egypt and Italian republic and the
swamp buffalo, institute from Assam in the west through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of Communist china in the east.[1]
[2]

The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) most likely represents the ancestor of the domestic h2o buffalo.[three]
Results of a phylogenetic study signal that the river-type water buffalo probably originated in western Republic of india and was domesticated virtually six,300 years ago, whereas the swamp-blazon originated independently from Mainland Southeast Asia and was domesticated most iii,000 to vii,000 years agone.[4]
The river buffalo dispersed w every bit far as Egypt, the Balkans, and Italia; while swamp buffalo dispersed to the rest of Southeast Asia and up to the Yangtze River valley.[iv]
[5]
[6]

Water buffaloes were traded from the Indus Valley civilisation to Mesopotamia, in modern Republic of iraq, 2500 BC by the Meluhhas.[vii]
The seal of a scribe employed by an Akkadian king shows the sacrifice of water buffaloes.[8]

At least 130 million water buffaloes exist, and more people depend on them than on any other domestic animal.[9]
They are peculiarly suitable for tilling rice fields, and their milk is richer in fat and protein than that of dairy cattle. A big feral population became established in northern Australia in the late 19th century, and at that place are smaller feral herds in Papua New Guinea, Tunisia and northeastern Argentina.[i]
Feral herds are likewise nowadays in New Britain, New Ireland, Irian Jaya, Republic of colombia, Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, and Uruguay.[ten]

Taxonomy

[edit]

Carl Linnaeus commencement described the genus
Bos
and the water buffalo nether the binomial
Bos bubalis
in 1758; the species was known to occur in Asia and was held as a domestic class in Italia.[eleven]
Ellerman and Morrison-Scott treated the wild and domestic forms of the h2o buffalo as conspecifics,[12]
whereas others treated them as different species.[thirteen]
The nomenclatorial treatment of the wild and domestic forms has been inconsistent and varies between authors and even inside the works of unmarried authors.[14]

In March 2003, the International Committee on Zoological Classification achieved consistency in the naming of the wild and domestic h2o buffaloes by ruling that the scientific name
Bubalus arnee
is valid for the wild form.[xv]
B. bubalis
continues to be valid for the domestic form and applies too to feral populations.[16]

Characteristics

[edit]

The skin of the river buffalo is black, but some specimens may have night, slate-coloured skin. Swamp buffaloes have a grayness pare at birth, merely become slate blue after. Albinoids are present in some populations. River buffaloes have insufficiently longer faces, smaller girths, and bigger limbs than swamp buffaloes. Their dorsal ridges extend further dorsum and taper off more gradually. Their horns grow downward and backward, and so bend upward in a spiral. Swamp buffaloes are heavy-bodied and stockily congenital; the body is short and the belly large. The forehead is flat, the optics prominent, the face brusque, and the cage wide. The cervix is comparatively long, and the withers and croup are prominent. A dorsal ridge extends backward and ends abruptly merely earlier the end of the chest. Their horns grow outward, and bend in a semicircle, but always remain more than or less on the airplane of the forehead. The tail is brusque, reaching only to the hocks. Body size and shape of horns may vary greatly among breeds. Boilerplate height at the withers are is 129–133 cm (51–52 in) for males, and 120–127 cm (47–50 in) for females, but big individuals may attain 160 cm (63 in). Head-lump length at maturity typically ranges 240–300 cm (94–118 in) with a 60–100 cm (24–39 in) long tail.[17]
They range in weight from 300–550 kg (660–ane,210 lb), only weights of over one,000 kg (2,200 lb) and 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) accept also been observed.[1]

Tedong bonga
is a piebald water buffalo featuring a unique black and white colouration that is favoured by the Toraja of Sulawesi.[18]

The swamp buffalo has 48 chromosomes; the river buffalo has fifty chromosomes. The ii types do not readily interbreed, only fertile offspring tin can occur. H2o buffalo-cattle hybrids have not been observed to occur, only the embryos of such hybrids reach maturity in laboratory experiments, albeit at lower rates than non-hybrids.[xix]

The rumen of the water buffalo differs from the rumen of other ruminants.[20]
It contains a larger population of bacteria, particularly the cellulolytic bacteria, lower protozoa, and higher fungi zoospores. In addition, higher rumen ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and college pH have been found, compared to those in cattle.[21]

Ecology and behavior

[edit]

H2o buffaloes in the h2o

H2o buffalo wallowing in mud

River buffaloes prefer deep water. Swamp buffaloes prefer to wallow in mudholes, which they make with their horns. During wallowing, they larn a thick coating of mud.[1]
Both are well-adapted to a hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging from 0 °C (32 °F) in the winter to xxx °C (86 °F) and greater in the summer. Water availability is of import in hot climates, since they need wallows, rivers, or splashing water to help in thermoregulation. Some h2o buffalo breeds are adapted to saline seaside shores and saline sandy terrain.[22]

Diet

[edit]

Water buffaloes thrive on many aquatic plants. During floods, they graze submerged, raising their heads higher up the water and carrying quantities of edible plants. H2o buffaloes eat reeds,
Arundo donax, a kind of Cyperaceae,
Eichhornia crassipes, and Juncaceae. Some of these plants are of great value to local peoples. Others, such as
E. crassipes
and
A. donax, are a major problem in some tropical valleys and by eating them, the water buffaloes may assistance control these invasive plants.

Green fodders are used widely for intensive milk production and for fattening. Many provender crops are conserved as hay, chaffed, or pulped. Fodders include alfalfa, the leaves, stems or trimmings of assistant, cassava, Mangelwurzel, esparto,
Leucaena leucocephala
and kenaf, maize, oats,
Pandanus, peanut, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane, bagasse, and turnips. Citrus lurid and pineapple wastes accept been fed safely to buffalo. In Egypt, whole sun-dried dates are fed to milk buffalo up to 25% of the standard feed mixture.[ane]

Reproduction

[edit]

A water buffalo calf in Bharat

Swamp buffaloes generally become reproductive at an older age than river breeds. Young males in Egypt, Bharat, and Pakistan are start mated around three.0–3.five years of historic period, simply in Italia, they may be used as early every bit ii years of historic period. Successful mating behaviour may continue until the animate being is 12 years or even older. A good river buffalo male can impregnate 100 females in a year. A strong seasonal influence on mating occurs. Estrus stress reduces libido.[one]

Although h2o buffaloes are polyoestrous, their reproductive efficiency shows wide variation throughout the year. The cows exhibit a distinct seasonal change in displaying heat, conception rate, and calving rate.[23]
The age at the first oestrus of heifers varies between breeds from xiii to 33 months, but mating at the first heat is often infertile and commonly deferred until they are iii years old. Gestation lasts from 281 to 334 days, only nearly reports give a range between 300 and 320 days. Swamp buffaloes behave their calves for one or ii weeks longer than river buffaloes. Finding h2o buffaloes that continue to work well at the age of thirty is not uncommon, and instances of a working life of forty years have been recorded.[1]

Domestication and convenance

[edit]

The most likely ancestor of domesticated water buffaloes is the wild h2o buffalo (Bubalus arnee), which is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.[24]
Ii types of domesticated water buffaloes are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria – the river buffalo of the western Indian subcontinent and further w to the Balkans and Italy; and the swamp buffalo, constitute from Assam in the westward through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of China in the due east.[2]

River and swamp-type water buffaloes are believed to accept been domesticated independently. Results of a phylogenetic study betoken that the river-blazon h2o buffalo probably originated in western Republic of india and was domesticated about 6,300 years ago, whereas the swamp-type originated independently from Mainland Southeast Asia and was domesticated about 3,000 to 7,000 years ago.[4]
The river buffalo dispersed west as far equally Egypt, the Balkans, and Italy; while swamp buffalo dispersed to the balance of Southeast Asia and upwards to the Yangtze River valley.[4]
[5]
[six]

Swamp-blazon water buffaloes entered Island Southeast Asia from at least 2,500 years agone, through the northern Philippines where butchered remains of domesticated water buffalos have been recovered from the Neolithic Nagsabaran site (part of the Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens, c. 2200 BCE to 400 CE). These became the ancestors of the distinct swamp-type carabao brood of the Philippines, which in turn spread to Malaysia, Indonesia, and Guam.[25]
[26]

The present-24-hour interval river buffalo is the event of complex domestication processes involving more than than i maternal lineage and a significant maternal gene flow from wild populations after the initial domestication events.[27]
20-two breeds of the river buffalo are known, including the Murrah, NiliRavi, Surti, Carabao, Anatolian, Mediterranean, and Egyptian buffaloes.[28]
China has a huge variety of water buffalo genetic resource, with 16 local swamp buffalo breeds in various regions.[22]

Genetic studies

[edit]

Results of mitochondrial DNA analyses bespeak that the two types were domesticated independently.[29]
Sequencing of cytochrome b genes of
Bubalus
species implies that the water buffalo originated from at to the lowest degree two populations, and that the river-blazon and the swamp-blazon have differentiated at the full species level. The genetic distance between the two types is and so large that a divergence time of near 1.7 million years has been suggested. The swamp-blazon was noticed to have the closest relationship with the tamaraw of the northern Philippines.[thirty]

A 2008 Deoxyribonucleic acid analysis of Neolithic h2o buffalo remains in northern China (previously used every bit testify of a Chinese domestication origin) found that the remains were of the extinct
Bubalus mephistopheles
and are non genetically related to mod domesticated water buffaloes. Another report in 2004 likewise concluded that the remains were from wild specimens. Both indicate that water buffaloes were first domesticated outside of China.[5]
[half-dozen]
Analyses of mitochondrial DNA and unmarried-nucleotide polymorphism bespeak that swamp and river buffaloes were crossbred in Mainland china.[31]

An analysis of the genomes of 91 swamp and 30 river buffaloes showed that they separated already before domestication about
0.23 million years ago.[32]

Distribution of populations

[edit]

A carabao buffalo in the Philippines

Water buffaloes in Sri Lanka

Past 2011, the global h2o buffalo population was most 172 million.[33]
The estimated global population of water buffalo is 208,098,759 head distributed in 77 countries in five continents.[34]

In Asia

[edit]

More 95.8% of the earth population of water buffaloes are kept in Asia, including both the river-type and the swamp-blazon.[22]
The water buffalo population in India numbered over 97.9 million head in 2003, representing 56.5% of the world population. They are primarily of the river type, with 10 well-defined breeds: the Bhadawari, Banni, Jafarabadi, Marathwadi, Mehsana, Murrah, Nagpuri, Nili-Ravi, Pandharpuri, Surti, and Toda buffaloes. Swamp buffaloes occur only in small-scale areas in northeastern Republic of india and are non distinguished into breeds.[35]

In 2003, the second-largest population lived in China, with 22.76 million caput, all of the swamp-blazon, with many breeds kept but in the lowlands, and other breeds kept but in the mountains; equally of 2003, three.2 1000000 swamp-type carabao buffaloes were in the Philippines, nearly iii million swamp buffaloes were in Vietnam, and roughly 773,000 buffaloes were in Bangladesh. About 750,000 head were estimated in Sri Lanka in 1997.[22]
In Japan, the h2o buffalo was used every bit a domestic animal throughout the Ryukyu Islands or Okinawa prefecture, all the same it is almost extinct now and mainly used as a tourist attraction.[36]
Per a 2015 study, about 836,500 water buffaloes were in Nepal.[37]

The water buffalo is the primary dairy animal in Pakistan, with 23.47 meg head in 2010.[38]
Of these, 76% are kept in the Punjab. The residual are mostly kept in the province of Sindh. The h2o buffalo breeds used are the Nili-Ravi, Kundi, and Azi Kheli.[39]
Karachi has the largest population of water buffaloes for an expanse where forage is non grown, consisting of 350,000 head kept mainly for milking.[
citation needed
]

In Thailand, the number of h2o buffaloes dropped from more than than three meg head in 1996 to less than i.24 million head in 2011.[twoscore]
Slightly over 75% of them are kept in the land’s northeastern region. By the beginning of 2012, less than one million were in the country, partly as a result of illegal shipments to neighboring countries where sales prices are higher than in Thailand.[
citation needed
]

Water buffaloes are also present in the southern region of Iraq in the Mesopotamian Marshes. The draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes by Saddam Hussein was an endeavor to punish the south for the 1991 Iraqi uprisings. After 2003 and the Firdos Square statue devastation, these lands were reflooded and a 2007 written report on Maysan and Dhi Qar shows a steady increase in the number of water buffaloes. The written report puts the number at 40,008 head in those two provinces.[41]

In Europe and the Mediterranean

[edit]

H2o buffaloes were probably introduced to Europe from India or other eastern sources. In Italia, the Longobard King Agilulf is said to have received water buffaloes around 600 AD. These were probably a present from the Khan of the Avars, a Turkic nomadic tribe that dwelt most the Danube River at the time. Sir H. Johnston knew of a herd of water buffaloes presented by a King of Naples to the Bey of Tunis in the mid-19th century that had resumed the feral land in northern Tunis.[42]

European water buffaloes are all of the river-type and considered to be of the same brood named the Mediterranean buffalo. In Italia, the Mediterranean blazon was particularly selected and is called the Mediterranea Italiana buffalo to distinguish it from other European breeds, which differ genetically. Mediterranean buffalo are besides kept in Romania, Republic of bulgaria, Greece, Serbia, Albania, Kosovo, and N Macedonia, with a few hundred in the United kingdom, Frg, kingdom of the netherlands, Switzerland, and Hungary. Little commutation of breeding water buffaloes has occurred among countries, and then each population has its own phenotypic features and performances. In Bulgaria, they were crossbred with the Indian Murrah breed, and in Romania, some were crossbred with Bulgarian Murrah.[22]
As of 2016, about 13,000 buffaloes were in Romania, down from 289,000 in 1989.[43]

Populations in Turkey are of the Anatolian buffalo breed.[28]

In Australia

[edit]

A feral water buffalo in Australia

Betwixt 1824 and 1849,[44]
swamp buffaloes[45]
were introduced into the Northern Territory from Timor, Kisar, and probably other islands in the Indonesian archipelago.[44]
When the third attempt at settlement by the British on the Cobourg Peninsula (east of present-day Darwin) was abandoned in 1849, the buffaloes were released.[46]
A few river buffaloes were imported from India in the 1880s[45]
for milking, brought from Republic of india to Darwin. Water buffalo take been the main grazing animals on the subcoastal plains and river basins between Darwin and Arnhem Land (the “Top End”) since the 1880s.[44]
[45]
They became feral and caused significant ecology damage. Their but natural predators in Commonwealth of australia are crocodiles and dingoes, which can only casualty on the younger animals. As a consequence, they were hunted in the Peak Finish from 1885 until 1980.[47]

In the early on 1960s, an estimated population of 150,000 to 200,000 water buffaloes was living in the plains and nearby areas.[44]
The commencement of the brucellosis and tuberculosis campaign (BTEC) resulted in a huge culling program to reduce water buffalo herds to a fraction of the numbers that were reached in the 1980s. The BTEC was finished when the Northern Territory was alleged free of the disease in 1997. Numbers dropped dramatically equally a outcome of the campaign, but had recovered to an estimated 150,000 animals across northern Commonwealth of australia in 2008,[47]
and upwards to an estimated 200,000 by 2022.[46]
Both swamp and river buffaloes exist in feral populations,[47]
but swamp buffaloes are more than prevalent than river buffaloes.[45]

Significance to Aboriginal peoples

[edit]

“Nganabbarru” is the Bininj Kunwok word for buffalo, which are represented in rock art paintings at Djabidjbakalloi. The buffalo left behind after the failed British endeavor at settlement became a threat to the local Ancient peoples, equally they had no guns at that fourth dimension. Equally the herds expanded across into Arnhem Land, some local people seized the adventure to hunt the animals for their hides in the 1880s, as they didn’t belong to anyone, unlike sheep and cattle. The industry continues to provide employment opportunities and income for traditional owners.[46]

Uses

[edit]

During the 1950s, water buffaloes were hunted for their skins and meat, which was exported and used in the local merchandise. In the late 1970s, live exports were made to Cuba and continued later into other countries. Swamp buffaloes are now crossed with river buffaloes in artificial insemination programs, and are kept in many areas of Commonwealth of australia. Some of these crossbreeds are used for milk production. Melville Island is a popular hunting location, where a steady population upward to 4,000 individuals exists. Safari outfits are run from Darwin to Melville Island and other locations in the Top Cease, often with the use of bush pilots; buffalo horns, which can measure upwardly to a record of 3.i grand (ten ft) tip-to-tip, are prized hunting trophies.[48]

H2o buffaloes were exported live to Republic of indonesia until 2011, at a rate of well-nigh iii,000 per year. Afterwards the live export ban that yr, the exports dropped to goose egg, and had not resumed as of June 2013.[49]
Tom Dawkins, CEO of NT Buffalo Industry Council, said in May 2022 that culling should be a last resort, given the flourishing and growing alive export trade and economical benefits for Aboriginal people.[46]
By the end of 2021, cattle exports to Indonesia had dropped to the everyman level since 2012, while need for buffalo was growing both in Australia and in Southeast Asia.[50]

In South America

[edit]

A Murrah buffalo on a Brazilian farm

Water buffaloes were introduced into the Amazon River basin in 1895. They are now extensively used there for meat and dairy product. In 2005, the h2o buffalo herd in the Brazilian Amazon stood at roughly i.6 million head, of which 460,000 were located in the lower Amazon floodplains.[51]
The breeds used include the Mediterranean from Italy, the Murrah and Jafarabadi from India, and the carabao from the Philippines. The official Brazilian herd number in 2019 is 1.39 million head.[34]

During the 1970s, minor herds were imported to Costa Rica, Republic of ecuador, Cayenne, Panama, Surinam, Guyana, and Venezuela.[52]

In Argentina, many game ranches raise water buffaloes for commercial hunting.[
citation needed
]

Other important herds in South America are Colombia (>300.000), Argentina (>100.000) and Venezuela with unconfirmed reports ranging from 200 to 500 thousand head.[34]

In North America

[edit]

In 1974, iv water buffaloes were imported to the U.s. from Guam to be studied at the Academy of Florida. In February 1978, the first herd arrived for commercial farming. Until 2002, but one commercial breeder was in the United States. Water buffalo meat is imported from Australia.[52]
Until 2011, water buffaloes were raised in Gainesville, Florida, from immature obtained from zoo overflow. They were used primarily for meat production, and frequently sold as hamburger.[53]
Other U.S. ranchers apply them for production of high-quality mozzarella cheese.[54]
[55]
[56]
[57]
Water buffaloes are also kept in the Caribbean area, specifically in Trinidad and Tobago and Cuba.[58]

Husbandry

[edit]

The husbandry organization of water buffaloes depends on the purpose for which they are bred and maintained. Most of them are kept by people who work on small farms in family units. Their h2o buffaloes live in shut association with them, and are oft their greatest capital letter asset. The women and girls in India generally wait after the milking buffaloes, while the men and boys are concerned with the working animals. Throughout Asia, they are commonly tended past children who are ofttimes seen leading or riding their charges to wallows. Water buffaloes are the ideal animals for work in the deep mud of paddy fields considering of their big hooves and flexible human foot joints. They are often referred to every bit “the living tractor of the E”. They are the well-nigh efficient and economical means of cultivation of pocket-size fields. In most rice-producing countries, they are used for threshing and for transporting the sheaves during the rice harvest. They provide power for oilseed mills, sugarcane presses, and devices for raising water. They are widely used every bit pack animals, and in Republic of india and Pakistan, for heavy haulage, likewise. In their invasions of Europe, the Turks used water buffaloes for hauling heavy battering rams. Their dung is used as a fertilizer, and every bit a fuel when dried.[one]

Around 26 million water buffaloes are slaughtered each year for meat worldwide.[59]
They contribute 72 1000000 tonnes of milk and 3 million tonnes of meat annually to world food, much of information technology in areas that are prone to nutritional imbalances. In India, river buffaloes are kept mainly for milk production and for transport, whereas swamp buffaloes are kept mainly for work and a small-scale amount of milk.[35]

Dairy products

[edit]

Dairy products of water buffalo milk

Water buffalo milk presents physicochemical features unlike from those of other ruminant species, such as a college content of fatty acids and proteins.[60]
The physical and chemical parameters of swamp-type and river-type water buffalo milk differ.[61]
Water buffalo milk contains higher levels of total solids, crude poly peptide, fatty, calcium, and phosphorus, and slightly college content of lactose compared with those of cow milk. The high level of total solids makes water buffalo milk ideal for processing into value-added dairy products such as cheese. The conjugated linoleic acid content in water buffalo milk ranged from 4.4 mg/one thousand fat in September to vii.6 mg/g fatty in June. Seasons and genetics may play a role in variation of CLA level and changes in gross limerick of water buffalo milk.[62]

Water buffalo milk is processed into a large diversity of dairy products, including:

  • Cream churns much faster at higher fat levels and gives higher overrun than cow cream.[63]
  • Butter from water buffalo foam displays more stability than that from cow foam.[63]
  • Ghee from h2o buffalo milk has a different texture with a bigger grain size than ghee from cow milk.[63]
  • Estrus-concentrated milk products in the Indian subcontinent include
    paneer, khoa, rabri, kheer, and
    basundi.[63]
  • Fermented milk products include
    dahi, yogurt, and
    chakka.[63]
  • Whey is used for making ricotta and mascarpone in Italy, and
    alkarish
    in Syrian arab republic and Egypt.[63]
  • Hard cheeses include
    braila
    in Romania, and
    rahss
    in Egypt.[63]
  • Soft cheeses fabricated include mozzarella in Italia,
    karish,
    mish, and
    madhfor
    in Iraq,
    alghab
    in Syrian arab republic,
    kesong puti
    in the Philippines, and
    vladeasa
    in Romania.[63]
Top 10 water buffalo milk producers — 2020[64]
Country Product (tonnes) Annotation
Bharat 90,026,273 [i]
Islamic republic of pakistan 37,256,000 [2]
Communist china ii,919,966 [3]
Arab republic of egypt ane,747,641 [iii]
Nepal 1,380,600 [iii]
Italy 253,830 [three]
Myanmar 205,102 [iii]
Iran 128,000 [3]
Mongolia 104,645 [iii]
Republic of indonesia 89,983 [iii]

World
134,425,197
Tabular array footnotes

  1. ^

    unofficial, semi-official, mirror information

  2. ^

    official effigy
  3. ^


    a




    b




    c




    d




    e




    f




    g




    h



    FAO estimate

Meat and skin products

[edit]

Water buffalo meat, sometimes chosen “carabeef”, is frequently passed off as beef in certain regions, and is also a major source of consign revenue for India. In many Asian regions, water buffalo meat is less preferred due to its toughness; notwithstanding, recipes have evolved (rendang, for example) where the deadening cooking process and spices not only make the meat palatable, but also preserve it, an of import factor in hot climates where refrigeration is not always available.[
citation needed
]

Their hides provide tough and useful leather, often used for shoes.[
commendation needed
]

Bone and horn products

[edit]

The basic and horns are oft made into jewellery, especially earrings. Horns are used for the embouchure of musical instruments, such as
ney
and
kaval.[65]

Environmental effects

[edit]

Wildlife conservation scientists have started to recommend and utilize introduced populations of feral water buffaloes in far-away lands to manage uncontrolled vegetation growth in and around natural wetlands. Introduced water buffaloes at dwelling in such environs provide cheap service by regularly grazing the uncontrolled vegetation and opening up chock-full water bodies for waterfowl, wetland birds, and other wildlife.[66]
[67]
Grazing water buffaloes are sometimes used in Great United kingdom for conservation grazing, such as in the Chippenham Fen National Nature Reserve. The h2o buffaloes can better adapt to wet conditions and poor-quality vegetation than cattle.[68]

Read:   What Does the Red Line on the Graph Represent

In uncontrolled circumstances, though, water buffaloes can cause environmental damage, such as trampling vegetation, disturbing bird and reptile nesting sites, and spreading exotic weeds.[69]

Research

[edit]

The super Carabao buffaloes at the milking and breeding station

In 2007, the development of Southeast Asia’s commencement cloned water buffalo was announced in the Philippines. The Department of Agriculture’southward Philippine Carabao Center implemented cloning through somatic cell nuclear transfer as a tool for genetic improvement in water buffaloes to produce “super buffalo calves” by multiplying existing germplasms, but without modifying or altering genetic material.[70]

In January 2008, the Philippine Carabao Eye in Nueva Ecija, per Filipino scientists, initiated a study to breed a super h2o buffalo that could produce 4 to 18 litres of milk per solar day, using cistron-based technology. Also, the offset
in vitro
river buffalo was born there in 2004 from an
in vitro-produced, vitrified embryo, named “Glory” afterwards President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo. Joseph Estrada’due south most successful project as an opposition senator, the PCC was created through Republic Deed 3707, the Carabao Act of 1992.[71]

Indian scientists from the National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal developed a cloned water buffalo in 2010. The h2o buffalo calf was named Samrupa. The dogie did not survive more than a week, due to genetic defects. A few months later, a 2nd cloned calf named Garima was successfully born.[72]
The Primal Institute for Research on Buffaloes, India’s premier research found on water buffaloes, also became the second establish in the world to successfully clone the water buffalo in 2016.[
commendation needed
]

In civilization

[edit]

The Hindu and Buddhist deity Yama on a h2o buffalo (Art Institute, Chicago)

  • In the Thai and Sinhalese brute and planetary zodiac, the h2o buffalo is the tertiary animal zodiac of the Thai and the quaternary creature zodiac of the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka.[76]
  • Some ethnic groups, such as Batak and Toraja in Indonesia and the Derung in People’s republic of china, sacrifice water buffaloes or
    kerbau
    (called
    horbo
    in Batak or
    tedong
    in Toraja) at several festivals.
  • The Minangkabau of Due west Sumatra adorn their houses and vesture with motifs based on the buffalo’s horns as a tribute to the legend that pitted a buffalo (kabau) chosen by their kingdom against one by the (traditionally) the Majapahit empire, to which their kingdom won.[77]
  • In Chinese tradition, the water buffalo is associated with a contemplative life.[78]
  • A h2o buffalo head was a symbol of decease in Tibet.[78]
  • The carabao is considered a national symbol of the Philippines, although this has no basis in Philippine law.[79]
  • In Indian mythology, evil is oft represented by the water buffalo. The Hindu god of death, Yama, rides on a water buffalo.[80]
  • A male h2o buffalo is sacrificed in many parts of India during festivals associated Shaktism sect of Hinduism.[81]
    [82]
    [83]
  • Legend has information technology that Chinese philosophical sage Laozi left Mainland china through the Han Gu Laissez passer riding a water buffalo.
  • In Gujarat and some parts of Rajasthan in India, mostly in Rayka, as well as many other communities, many worship the goddess Vihat, who uses a male water buffalo as her Vahana. Besides, the goddess Varahi in Indian civilisation is shown to possess a water buffalo and ride it.
  • According to folklore, Mahishasura, a half-buffalo and half-human demon, was killed by the goddess Durga.
  • In Vietnam, water buffaloes are often the most valuable possession of poor farmers.
  • Many ethnic groups use the horns of water buffaloes as a game trophy, or for musical instruments and ornaments. Similarly, the water buffalo is the 2d animate being zodiac in the Vietnamese zodiac.

Fighting festivals

[edit]

Filipinos and American soldiers observed a water buffalo fight in 1906.

An unstaged h2o buffalo fight

  • The Pasungay Festival is held annually in the boondocks of San Joaquin, Iloilo, the Philippines.
  • The Moh juj Water Buffalo Fighting Festival is held every year in Bhogali Bihu in Assam.[84]
  • The Do Son Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam is held each year on the 9th twenty-four hours of the 8th month of the lunar calendar at Do Son Township, Haiphong Metropolis, Vietnam. Information technology is one of the most pop Vietnam festivals and events in Haiphong Urban center. The preparations for this buffalo fighting festival begin from the two to three months earlier. The competing water buffalo are selected and methodically trained months in advance. Information technology is a traditional festival of Vietnam attached to a Water God worshiping ceremony and the
    Hien Sinh
    custom to show the martial spirit of the local people of Practise Son, Haiphong.[85]
    [86]
  • The Hai Luu H2o Buffalo Fighting Festival of Vietnam has existed since the second century BC. General Lu Gia, at that time, had the water buffalo slaughtered to give a feast to the local people and the warriors, and organized buffalo fighting for amusement. Eventually, all the fighting water buffaloes will be slaughtered as tributes to the deities.[87]
    [88]
  • The Ko Samui Water Buffalo Fighting Festival of Thailand is a popular consequence held on special occasions such as New Year’due south Day in January, and Songkran in mid-April. This festival features head-wrestling bouts in which ii male water buffaloes are pitted confronting one some other. Unlike in Spanish bullfighting, wherein bulls get killed while fighting sword-wielding men, the festival held at Ko Samui is a adequately harmless competition. The fighting season varies according to ancient customs and ceremonies. The first water buffalo to turn and run away is considered the loser; the winning h2o buffalo becomes worth several meg baht.[89]
  • The Ma’Pasilaga Tedong Water Buffalo Fighting Festival, in Tana Toraja Regency of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, is a popular consequence where the Rambu Solo or a Burying Festival takes identify in Tana Toraja.

Racing festivals

[edit]

A carabao cart in the Philippines in 1899

  • The Carabao Carroza Festival is held annually every May in the town of Pavia, Iloilo, the Philippines.
  • The Kambala races of Karnataka, India, have place betwixt Oct and March.[ninety]
    The races are conducted by having the water buffaloes (bulls) run in long parallel slushy ditches, where they are driven past men standing on wooden planks drawn by the water buffaloes. The objectives of the race are to stop beginning and to raise the water to the greatest acme. Information technology is also a rural sport. Kambala races are arranged with competition, as well as without competition, and as a part of thanksgiving (to God) in about 50 villages of littoral Karnataka.
  • Chonburi Province of Thailand, and in Pakistan, annual water buffalo races are held.
  • The Chon Buri water buffalo racing festival, in downtown Chonburi, lxx km (43 mi) due south of Bangkok, an annual water buffalo festival is held in mid-October. About 300 water buffaloes race in groups of v or half-dozen, spurred on past bareback jockeys wielding wooden sticks, as hundreds of spectators cheer. The water buffalo has always played an important role in agronomics in Thailand. For the farmers, it is an important festival. It is also a celebration amidst rice farmers earlier the rice harvest. At dawn, farmers walk their water buffaloes through the surrounding rice fields, splashing them with water to keep them cool before leading them to the race field.
  • The Babulang water buffalo racing festival in Sarawak, Malaysia, is the largest or grandest of the many rituals, ceremonies and festivals of the traditional Bisaya customs of Limbang, Sarawak. Highlights are the Ratu Babulang competition and the water buffalo races, which can just be found in this town in Sarawak, Malaysia.
  • At the Vihear Suor hamlet water buffalo racing festival, Cambodia, each twelvemonth, people visit Buddhist temples across the country to honor their deceased loved ones during a 15-twenty-four hour period menstruation commonly known as the Festival of the Expressionless, but in Vihear Suor village, well-nigh 22 mi (35 km) northeast of Phnom Penh, citizens each yr wrap upwardly the festival with a water buffalo race to entertain visitors and honour a pledge fabricated hundreds of years agone. There was a time when many village cattle which provide rural Cambodians with musculus power to plow their fields and ship agricultural products died from an unknown illness. The villagers prayed to a spirit to aid salvage their animals from the disease and promised to show their gratitude past holding a h2o buffalo race each year on the last mean solar day of the “P’chum Ben” festival, as information technology is known in Kingdom of cambodia. The race draws hundreds of spectators, who come to see riders and their animals charge down the racing field, the racers bouncing up and down on the backs of their water buffaloes, whose horns were draped with colorful cloth.[
    citation needed
    ]
  • Buffalo racing in Kerala is similar to the Kambala races.[91]
    [92]

Religious festival

[edit]

  • The Pulilan Carabao Festival is held annually every xiv and 15 May in the Philippine boondocks of Pulilan in honor of St. Isidore the Laborer, the patron saint of farmers. Every bit thanksgiving for a bountiful harvest every yr, farmers parade their carabaos in the main town street, adorning them with garlands and other decorations. 1 of the highlights of the festival is the kneeling of the carabaos in front of the parish church.[93]

See likewise

[edit]

  • Cattle in religion
  • List of water buffalo breeds
  • Italian Mediterranean buffalo
  • Bubalus murrensis
  • African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)
  • Zebu, the common breed of domestic cattle from India

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Further reading

[edit]

  • Clutton-Brock, J. 1999.
    A Natural History of Domesticated Mammals. Cambridge, U.k.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-63495-4.
  • Fahimuddin, M. 1989.
    Domestic H2o Buffalo. Janpath, New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-204-0402-5.
  • Guinness Book of Records, 2005.
  • The H2o Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Beast. Washington, D.C. 1981. National University Press. ISBN 978-0-309-04159-1.
  • Nowak, R. M. and Paradiso, J. L. 1983.
    Walker’southward Mammals of the Globe. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-2525-3.
  • Roth, J. and P. Myers. “Bubalis Bubalis”, University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Spider web. Retrieved 15 Jan 2009
  • Ruangprim, T. et al. 2007. “Rumen microbes and ecology of male dairy, beef cattle and buffaloes”. In:
    Proceedings Beast Science Annual Meeting, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.
  • Thu, Nguyen Van and T. R. Preston. 1999. “Rumen environment and feed degradability in swamp buffaloes fed different supplements”.
    Livestock Research for Rural Development
    11 (iii)
  • Voelker, W. 1986.
    The Natural History of Living Mammals. Medford, New Jersey: Plexus Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-937548-08-1.
  • Wanapat, 1000. 2000. “Rumen manipulation to increment the efficient use of local feed resources and productivity of ruminants in the tropics”.
    Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci.
    13(Suppl.): 59–67.
  • Wanapat, Thou. and P. Rowlinson. 2007. “Nutrition and feeding of swamp buffalo: Feed resources and rumen approach”. Paper to be presented at the 8 World Buffalo Congress, 19–22 October 2007, Caserta, Italy, organized past The International Buffalo Federation.
  • Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993.
    Mammal Species of the Globe: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Second Edition. Smithsonian Institution.
Read:   What is the Relationship Between Co2 and O2 for Urchins

External links

[edit]

  • Buffalopedia, created by Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes at Hisar city, Haryana state, Bharat.
  • Creature Info:
    Wild Asian (H2o) Buffalo
  • Creature features:
    Buffaloes
  • Feral buffalo in Commonwealth of australia
  • Breeds of Livestock:
    Murrah
  • National Agronomical Innovation Projection:
    Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci for Milk yield, Fatty and Protein Pct in Buffaloes



The Figures Below Refer to a Herd of Water Buffalo

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_buffalo

Originally posted 2022-08-04 04:20:50.

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