Match the Methodological Approach With Its Definition

Match the Methodological Approach With Its Definition.

What Is a Inquiry Methodology? | Steps & Tips

inquiry methodology
discusses and explains the data collection and analysis methods y’all used in your research. A key part of your thesis, dissertation, or research newspaper, the methodology chapter explains what y’all did and how you did information technology, allowing readers to evaluate the reliability and validity of your enquiry.

It should include:

  • The blazon of research you conducted
  • How you collected and analyzed your data
  • Whatsoever tools or materials y’all used in the research
  • Why you chose these methods
  • Your methodology section should by and large be written in the by tense.
  • Academic style guides in your field may provide detailed guidelines on what to include for different types of studies.
  • Your citation mode might provide guidelines for your methodology section (east.g., an APA Style methods section).

How to write a research methodology

Why is a methods section important?

Your methods section is your opportunity to share how you conducted your research and why yous chose the methods you chose. It’southward also the place to show that your research was rigorously conducted and can exist replicated.

Information technology gives your research legitimacy and situates it within your field, and also gives your readers a place to refer to if they have whatsoever questions or critiques in other sections.

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See an example

Step 1: Explicate your methodological arroyo

You can start past introducing your overall approach to your research. You lot have ii options here.

Option 1: Start with your “what”

What enquiry problem or question did you investigate?

  • Aim to describe the characteristics of something?
  • Explore an under-researched topic?
  • Establish a causal relationship?

And what type of information did you lot need to achieve this aim?

  • Quantitative data, qualitative data, or a mix of both?
  • Primary data collected yourself, or secondary data collected by someone else?
  • Experimental data gathered past decision-making and manipulating variables, or descriptive data gathered via observations?

Option ii: Start with your “why”

Depending on your field of study, you can also outset with a discussion of the rationale and assumptions underpinning your methodology. In other words, why did you cull these methods for your report?

  • Why is this the all-time manner to reply your enquiry question?
  • Is this a standard methodology in your field, or does it require justification?
  • Were there any ethical considerations involved in your choices?
  • What are the criteria for validity and reliability in this type of research?
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Quantitative example
In a quantitative experimental study, you may aim to produce generalizable knowledge about the causes of a phenomenon. This requires a carefully designed written report under controlled conditions that can be replicated by other researchers.
Qualitative example
In a qualitative ethnography, you may aim to produce contextual, real-world knowledge virtually the behaviors, social structures, or shared beliefs of a specific grouping of people. This methodology is less controlled and more interpretive, and then you lot volition need to reflect on your position equally a researcher.

Step two: Depict your data collection methods

In one case you have introduced your reader to your methodological approach, you should share total details well-nigh your information collection methods.

Quantitative methods

In gild to be considered generalizable, you should describe quantitative inquiry methods in enough particular for some other researcher to replicate your written report.

Hither, explain how you lot operationalized your concepts and measured your variables. Discuss your sampling method or inclusion and exclusion criteria, likewise as any tools, procedures, and materials yous used to assemble your data.


Describe where, when, and how the survey was conducted.

  • How did y’all design the questionnaire?
  • What form did your questions take (eastward.g., multiple choice, Likert scale)?
  • Were your surveys conducted in-person or about?
  • What sampling method did you employ to select participants?
  • What was your sample size and response rate?
You may besides want to include the total questionnaire as an appendix. This way, your readers can see exactly how your questions and data align.


Share full details of the tools, techniques, and procedures y’all used to conduct your experiment.

  • How did you design the experiment?
  • How did yous recruit participants?
  • How did you lot manipulate and measure the variables?
  • What tools did you use?

Existing data

Explain how you gathered and selected the cloth (such as datasets or archival data) that you used in your analysis.

  • Where did you source the cloth?
  • How was the data originally produced?
  • What criteria did you use to select fabric (e.g., date range)?
Example: Quantitative methods

The survey consisted of 5 multiple-choice questions and 10 questions measured on a 7-point Likert scale.

The goal was to collect survey responses from 350 customers visiting the fettle apparel visitor’s brick-and-mortar location in Boston on July 4–8, 2022, between 11:00 and xv:00.

Here, a client was defined every bit a person who had purchased a product from the company on the 24-hour interval they took the survey. Participants were given 5 minutes to fill in the survey anonymously. In total, 408 customers responded, but non all surveys were fully completed. Due to this, 371 survey results were included in the analysis.

Qualitative methods

In qualitative research, methods are often more flexible and subjective. For this reason, information technology’s crucial to robustly explicate the methodology choices y’all fabricated.

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Be sure to discuss the criteria you used to select your information, the context in which your research was conducted, and the role you played in collecting your data (eastward.g., were you an active participant, or a passive observer?)

Interviews or focus groups

Describe where, when, and how the interviews were conducted.

  • How did you find and select participants?
  • How many participants took part?
  • What form did the interviews take (structured, semi-structured, or unstructured)?
  • How long were the interviews?
  • How were they recorded?

Participant ascertainment

Describe where, when, and how you conducted the observation or ethnography.

  • What group or customs did y’all observe? How long did you spend there?
  • How did you gain access to this group? What part did you play in the community?
  • How long did you spend conducting the enquiry? Where was it located?
  • How did you record your data (e.g., audiovisual recordings, note-taking)?

Existing data

Explicate how you selected case study materials for your analysis.

  • What type of materials did y’all analyze?
  • How did you select them?
Case: Qualitative methods

In order to gain better insight into possibilities for future improvement of the fitness store’s product range, semi-structured interviews were conducted with viii returning customers.

Here, a returning customer was defined equally someone who normally bought products at least twice a calendar week from the shop.

Surveys were used to select participants. Interviews were conducted in a small-scale function next to the cash annals and lasted approximately 20 minutes each. Answers were recorded past note-taking, and vii interviews were also filmed with consent. One interviewee preferred not to be filmed.

Mixed methods

Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative approaches. If a standalone quantitative or qualitative report is insufficient to reply your research question, mixed methods may exist a skillful fit for you.

Keep in mind that mixed methods research doesn’t just hateful collecting both types of information. Rather, it encompasses careful consideration and integration of both types of data into robust and strong conclusions.

Mixed methods are less common than standalone analyses, largely because they require a cracking bargain of effort to pull off successfully. If you lot cull to pursue mixed methods, it’s specially of import to robustly justify your methods here.

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Example: Mixed methods

Quantitative and qualitative methods were combined to see if there was a statistically significant relationship between the speed with which the fitness store shelved new releases from popular brands and the likelihood that customers would return. Quantitative inquiry involved running analyses in R on purchase data, while qualitative research focused on the likelihood that interviewed participants mentioned new releases.

Step iii: Draw your analysis method

Next, yous should betoken how y’all processed and analyzed your data. Avoid going into also much detail: you should not start introducing or discussing any of your results at this stage.

Quantitative methods

In quantitative research, your analysis will exist based on numbers. In your methods section, you tin include:

  • How you lot prepared the information before analyzing it ( thousand., checking for missing data, removing outliers, transforming variables)
  • Which software you lot used (east.g., SPSS, Stata or R)
  • Which statistical tests you used (e.g., two-tailed
    test, elementary linear regression)
Example: Quantitative methods

Before analysis, the gathered data was prepared. The dataset was checked for missing data and outliers. For this, the “outlier labeling rule” was used. All values exterior the calculated range were considered outliers (Hoaglin & Iglewicz, 1987). The data were and so analyzed using a 2-way ANOVA with statistical software SPSS.

Qualitative methods

In qualitative research, your analysis will exist based on language, images, and observations (oft involving some grade of textual analysis).

Specific methods might include:

  • Content analysis:
    Categorizing and discussing the pregnant of words, phrases and sentences
  • Thematic assay:
    Coding and closely examining the data to identify broad themes and patterns
  • Discourse analysis:
    Studying advice and pregnant in relation to their social context
Example: Qualitative methods

The interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was conducted. This involved coding all the data before identifying and reviewing six primal themes. Each theme was examined to gain an understanding of participants’ perceptions and motivations.

Mixed methods

Mixed methods combine the in a higher place 2 inquiry methods, integrating both qualitative and quantitative approaches into i coherent analytical process.

Pace 4: Evaluate and justify the methodological choices you made

Higher up all, your methodology section should clearly make the case for why you lot chose the methods you did. This is specially true if you did non take the most standard approach to your topic. In this case, discuss why other methods were not suitable for your objectives, and show how this approach contributes new noesis or understanding.

In any case, it should exist overwhelmingly clear to your reader that you set yourself up for success in terms of your methodology’south design. Prove how your methods should lead to results that are valid and reliable, while leaving the analysis of the meaning, importance, and relevance of your results for your discussion section.

You tin admit limitations or weaknesses in the arroyo you chose, just justify why these were outweighed by the strengths. Here are a few examples:

  • Quantitative:
    Lab-based experiments cannot always accurately simulate real-life situations and behaviors, but they are effective for testing causal relationships betwixt variables.
  • Qualitative:
    Unstructured interviews usually produce results that cannot be generalized across the sample grouping, merely they provide a more in-depth understanding of participants’ perceptions, motivations, and emotions.
  • Mixed methods:
    Despite bug systematically comparing differing types of information, a solely quantitative written report would not sufficiently incorporate the lived experience of each participant, while a solely qualitative report would be insufficiently generalizable.

Tips for writing a strong methodology chapter

Think that your aim is not just to describe your methods, but to show how and why you practical them. Again, it’s critical to demonstrate that your research was rigorously conducted and can be replicated.

1. Focus on your objectives and research questions

The methodology section should clearly show why your methods accommodate your objectives and convince the reader that you chose the best possible approach to answering your problem statement and research questions.

ii. Cite relevant sources

Your methodology can be strengthened by referencing existing research in your field. This can help you lot to:

  • Testify that you lot followed established practice for your type of inquiry
  • Talk over how you lot decided on your approach by evaluating existing enquiry
  • Nowadays a novel methodological arroyo to address a gap in the literature
Our costless commendation generators tin can aid you lot create MLA citations and APA citations.

3. Write for your audience

Consider how much information yous need to give, and avoid getting too lengthy. If you are using methods that are standard for your subject, yous probably don’t need to give a lot of groundwork or justification.

Regardless, your methodology should be a articulate, well-structured text that makes an argument for your approach, non but a listing of technical details and procedures.

Ofttimes asked questions near methodology

What is sampling?

is a subset of individuals from a larger population.

means selecting the grouping that you will actually collect information from in your research. For example, if you are researching the opinions of students in your academy, you could survey a sample of 100 students.

In statistics, sampling allows y’all to test a hypothesis nearly the characteristics of a population.

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Match the Methodological Approach With Its Definition


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