Craik and Lockhart Proposed the Idea That Deeper Levels of

Craik and Lockhart Proposed the Idea That Deeper Levels of.

The levels of processing effect was the creation of Robert South. Lockhart and Fergus I. M. Craik in 1972. The duo introduced this model as an alternative to prior memory theories (Atkinson & Shiffrin) which had divided memory into sensory, working and long-term stages.

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Basically Craik & Lockhart believed that the depth of mental processing affected memory function. Memories that were deeply processed led to longer lasting memories while shallow processing led to memories that decayed easily.

Shallow processing occurs in four ways:

  • Structural:
    Processing how an object or sound looks
  • Phonemic:
    When nosotros process how something sounds
  • Graphemic:
    Processing letters contained in a word
  • Orthographic:
    Processing the shape of something

Deep or semantic processing occurs in 3 ways:

  • The process of relating an object/state of affairs etc. to something else
  • When the meaning of something is thought of
  • When we process the importance of something

Simply put, the mode nosotros process information totally affects the extent that information technology is memorized co-ordinate to the levels of processing model. Deep and semantic processing involves us thinking deeply nigh something which causes the memory of it to be easily accessed. Whereas shallow processing merely thinks about the surface of something, meaning it soon decays and is forgotten.

There are 3 factors which determine if a memory remains:

  • Maintenance Rehearsal:
    The procedure of repeating the information
  • Elaborative Rehearsal:
    When the information is analyzed in a deeper mode
  • Distinctiveness:
    The ability to tell items autonomously
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The levels of processing model suggests that the simply one of the above factors which improves Long-Term Memory (LTM) is elaborative rehearsal.

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In that location are a number of differences between this and the Atkinson-Shiffrin model. While the Atkinson-Shiffrin model concentrated on long and short-term retentiveness (STM), the levels of processing model focuses on the processes that make up retentiveness and does non distinguish between LTM and STM. According to levels of processing, only elaborative rehearsal improves LTM while the Atkinson-Shiffrin model suggests that any form of rehearsal leads to an improvement in LTM. Unlike the Atkinson-Shiffrin model which structured LTM and STM, levels of processing has no prepare construction.


Craik & Lockhart’south model has a number of strengths. It was the offset theory to show that retentiveness is actually improved when information technology undergoes deeper processing. This in turn explained why certain things are improve remembered than others. Information technology besides proved that encoding is not a simple process.

Finally, brain imaging studies showed that college levels of processing lead to greater activity levels in unlike parts of the brain which gives the theory some acceptance.


In terms of weaknesses, the theory is better described than explained. It seems to exist a rather simple explanation for such a complex bailiwick with the terms ‘deep’ and ‘shallow’ hardly an extensive wait into the theory of memory. The part of the theory which suggests that shallow processing equals a memory being quickly lost is not 100% accurate in all cases. Those with illnesses that touch on retentivity cannot exist included in the levels of processing theory.

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Finally, this theory was espoused in 1972 but since so, various neuropsychological studies accept suggested that there are specific systems of storage and structures contained in our retentivity.

Craik and Lockhart Proposed the Idea That Deeper Levels of


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