Compare and Contrast Horticultural Societies With Agricultural Societies

Compare and Contrast Horticultural Societies With Agricultural Societies.

This is “The Development of Modern Society”, section 5.two from the book Sociology: Comprehensive Edition (v. ane.0). For details on it (including licensing), click here.

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5.two
The Development of Modernistic Society

Learning Objectives

  1. List the major types of societies that accept been distinguished co-ordinate to their economy and technology.
  2. Explain why social development produced greater gender and wealth inequality.

To aid understand how mod guild developed, sociologists find information technology useful to distinguish societies according to their blazon of economic system and technology. One of the nigh useful schemes distinguishes the following types of societies:
hunting-and-gathering,
horticultural,
pastoral,
agronomical, and
industrial
(Nolan & Lenski, 2009).Nolan, P., & Lenski, Chiliad. (2009).
Human societies: An introduction to macrosociology
(11th ed.). Boulder, CO: Prototype.

Some scholars add a final blazon,
postindustrial, to the finish of this listing. We now outline the major features of each blazon in turn. Tabular array v.one “Summary of Societal Development” summarizes these features.

Tabular array 5.i
Summary of Societal Development

Blazon of society Fundamental characteristics
Hunting-and-gathering These are small-scale, simple societies in which people chase and get together food. Because all people in these societies accept few possessions, the societies are fairly egalitarian, and the degree of inequality is very low.
Horticultural and pastoral Horticultural and pastoral societies are larger than hunting-and-gathering societies. Horticultural societies grow crops with unproblematic tools, while pastoral societies heighten livestock. Both types of societies are wealthier than hunting-and-gathering societies, and they also take more inequality and greater disharmonize than hunting-and-gathering societies.
Agricultural These societies grow nifty numbers of crops, thanks to the use of plows, oxen, and other devices. Compared to horticultural and pastoral societies, they are wealthier and have a higher degree of conflict and of inequality.
Industrial Industrial societies feature factories and machines. They are wealthier than agricultural societies and have a greater sense of individualism and a somewhat lower degree of inequality that yet remains substantial.
Postindustrial These societies feature information applied science and service jobs. Higher teaching is especially important in these societies for economical success.

Hunting-and-Gathering Societies

Showtime nigh 250,000 years ago,
hunting-and-gathering societiesSocieties of a few dozen members whose food is obtained from hunting animals and gathering plants and vegetation.

are the oldest ones we know of; few of them remain today, partly because modern societies take encroached on their existence. Equally the name
hunting-and-gathering
implies, people in these societies both chase for nutrient and gather plants and other vegetation. They take few possessions other than some elementary hunting-and-gathering equipment. To ensure their mutual survival, everyone is expected to assistance detect food and also to share the nutrient they find. To seek their food, hunting-and-gathering peoples often move from place to place. Because they are nomadic, their societies tend to be quite small-scale, often consisting of just a few dozen people.

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Beyond this simple summary of the blazon of life these societies lead, anthropologists have as well charted the nature of social relationships in them. One of their most important findings is that hunting-and-gathering societies are fairly egalitarian. Although men practise most of the hunting and women most of the gathering, perchance reflecting the biological differences between the sexes discussed earlier, women and men in these societies are roughly equal. Because hunting-and-gathering societies have few possessions, their members are besides fairly equal in terms of wealth and power, equally virtually no wealth exists.

Horticultural and Pastoral Societies

Horticultural and pastoral societies both developed almost 10,000–12,000 years ago. In
horticultural societiesSocieties that apply hoes and other simple tools to raise small-scale amounts of crops.
, people use hoes and other simple hand tools to raise crops. In
pastoral societiesSocieties that raise livestock every bit their primary source of food.
, people raise and herd sheep, goats, camels, and other domesticated animals and apply them as their major source of nutrient and also, depending on the creature, as a ways of transportation. Some societies are either primarily horticultural or pastoral, while other societies combine both forms. Pastoral societies tend to be at to the lowest degree somewhat nomadic, as they oft take to motion to find better grazing land for their animals. Horticultural societies, on the other hand, tend to be less nomadic, as they are able to keep growing their crops in the same location for some time. Both types of societies oftentimes manage to produce a surplus of food from vegetable or animal sources, respectively, and this surplus allows them to trade their extra food with other societies. It also allows them to accept a larger population size than hunting-and-gathering societies that often reaches several hundred members.

Horticultural societies often produce an excess of nutrient that allows them to merchandise with other societies and also to accept more members than hunting-and-gathering societies.

Accompanying the greater complexity and wealth of horticultural and pastoral societies is greater inequality in terms of gender and wealth than is constitute in hunting-and-gathering societies. In pastoral societies, wealth stems from the number of animals a family owns, and families with more animals are wealthier and more powerful than families with fewer animals. In horticultural societies, wealth stems from the corporeality of land a family unit owns, and families with more land are wealthier and more powerful.

1 other side effect of the greater wealth of horticultural and pastoral societies is greater conflict. As simply mentioned, sharing of nutrient is a key norm in hunting-and-gathering societies. In horticultural and pastoral societies, however, wealth (and more specifically, the differences in wealth) leads to disputes and fifty-fifty fighting over land and animals. Whereas hunting-and-gathering peoples tend to be very peaceful, horticultural and pastoral peoples tend to be more aggressive.

Agricultural Societies

Agricultural societiesSocieties that cultivate large amounts of crops with plows and other relatively advanced tools and equipment.

developed some v,000 years agone in the Middle East, cheers to the invention of the turn. When pulled by oxen and other large animals, the turn allowed for much more tillage of crops than the uncomplicated tools of horticultural societies permitted. The bicycle was besides invented near the same time, and written language and numbers began to be used. The development of agronomical societies thus marked a watershed in the development of homo gild. Aboriginal Egypt, China, Hellenic republic, and Rome were all agricultural societies, and India and many other big nations today remain primarily agricultural.

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We have already seen that the greater food production of horticultural and pastoral societies led them to become larger than hunting-and-gathering societies and to have more trade and greater inequality and conflict. Agricultural societies continue all these trends. First, because they produce and then much more than food than horticultural and pastoral societies, they oftentimes become quite large, with their numbers sometimes reaching into the millions. Second, their huge food surpluses atomic number 82 to all-encompassing merchandise, both within the society itself and with other societies. Third, the surpluses and merchandise both atomic number 82 to degrees of wealth unknown in the earlier types of societies and thus to unprecedented inequality, exemplified in the appearance for the first time of peasants, people who piece of work on the land of rich landowners. Finally, agricultural societies’ greater size and inequality likewise produce more conflict. Some of this conflict is internal, equally rich landowners struggle with each other for even greater wealth and power, and peasants sometimes engage in revolts. Other conflict is external, every bit the governments of these societies seek other markets for trade and greater wealth.

If gender inequality becomes somewhat greater in horticultural and pastoral societies than in hunting-and-gathering ones, information technology becomes very pronounced in agricultural societies. An important reason for this is the difficult, physically taxing work in the fields, much of it using large plow animals, that characterizes these societies. And so, as well, women are oftentimes pregnant in these societies, because large families provide more than bodies to work in the fields and thus more income. Considering men do more than of the physical labor in agronomical societies—labor on which these societies depend—they take acquired greater power over women (Brettell & Sargent, 2009).Brettell, C. B., & Sargent, C. F. (Eds.). (2009).
Gender in cross-cultural perspective
(5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

In the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample, agricultural societies are much more than probable than hunting-and-gathering ones to believe men should dominate women (come across Figure 5.2 “Type of Order and Presence of Cultural Conventionalities That Men Should Dominate Women”).

Effigy 5.2
Blazon of Society and Presence of Cultural Conventionalities That Men Should Dominate Women

Industrial Societies

Industrial societiesLarge societies that rely on machines and factories equally their main modes of economic production.

emerged in the 1700s as the development of machines and so factories replaced the turn and other agricultural equipment every bit the primary mode of production. The commencement machines were steam- and water-powered, simply eventually, of class, electricity became the main source of power. The growth of industrial societies marked such a great transformation in many of the globe’s societies that nosotros now phone call the menstruum from almost 1750 to the late 1800s the Industrial Revolution. This revolution has had enormous consequences in almost every attribute of club, some for the better and some for the worse.

On the positive side, industrialization brought nigh technological advances that improved people’s health and expanded their life spans. Every bit noted before, there is also a greater emphasis in industrial societies on individualism, and people in these societies typically enjoy greater political freedom than those in older societies. Compared to agricultural societies, industrial societies also accept lowered economic and gender inequality. In industrial societies, people practise have a greater chance to pull themselves up by their bootstraps than was truthful in earlier societies, and rags-to-riches stories keep to illustrate the opportunity available under industrialization. That said, we will see in afterward capacity that economical and gender inequality remains substantial in many industrial societies.

On the negative side, industrialization meant the rise and growth of big cities and concentrated poverty and degrading weather in these cities, every bit the novels of Charles Dickens poignantly remind us. This urbanization changed the character of social life by creating a more impersonal and less traditional
Gesellschaft
society. It as well led to riots and other urban violence that, amongst other things, helped fuel the ascension of the modern police strength and forced factory owners to improve workplace conditions. Today industrial societies consume most of the world’due south resources, pollute its environment to an unprecedented degree, and take compiled nuclear arsenals that could undo thousands of years of man society in an instant.

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Postindustrial Societies

Nosotros are increasingly living in what has been called the
it age
(or merely
information age), equally wireless engineering vies with machines and factories as the basis for our economy. Compared to industrial economies, we now have many more service jobs, ranging from housecleaning to secretarial work to repairing computers. Societies in which this transition is happening are moving from an industrial to a postindustrial stage of development. In
postindustrial societiesSocieties in which information technology and service jobs have replaced machines and manufacturing jobs as the primary dimension of the economy.
, then, information technology and service jobs have replaced machines and manufacturing jobs as the primary dimension of the economy (Bong, 1999).Bell, D. (Ed.). (1999).
The coming of postal service-industrial society: A venture in social forecasting. New York, NY: Bones Books.

If the machine was the sign of the economic and social times back in the 1920s, so the smartphone or netbook/laptop is the sign of the economic and social future in the early years of the 21st century. If the manufactory was the dominant workplace at the beginning of the 20th century, with workers standing at their positions by conveyor belts, then cell phone, computer, and software companies are ascendant industries at the beginning of the 21st century, with workers, almost all of them much meliorate educated than their earlier factory counterparts, huddled over their wireless technology at domicile, at work, or on the road. In curt, the Industrial Revolution has been replaced by the Information Revolution, and we now have what has been chosen an
information society
(Hassan, 2008).Hassan, R. (2008).
The information society: Cyber dreams and digital nightmares. Malden, MA: Polity.

As office of postindustrialization in the Us, many manufacturing companies take moved their operations from U.S. cities to overseas sites. Since the 1980s, this process has raised unemployment in cities, many of whose residents lack the college teaching and other grooming needed in the data sector. Partly for this reason, some scholars fear that the information age will aggravate the disparities we already accept betwixt the “haves” and “have-nots” of lodge, as people lacking a college teaching will have even more trouble finding gainful employment than they practice now (W. J. Wilson, 2009).Wilson, W. J. (2009). The economical plight of inner-city black males. In E. Anderson (Ed.),
Confronting the wall: Poor, immature, blackness, and male person
(pp. 55–lxx). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

In the international arena, postindustrial societies may also have a leg up over industrial or, specially, agricultural societies as the world moves always more into the data age.

Cardinal Takeaways

  • The major types of societies historically accept been hunting-and-gathering, horticultural, pastoral, agronomical, industrial, and postindustrial.
  • As societies adult and grew larger, they became more unequal in terms of gender and wealth and likewise more competitive and even warlike with other societies.
  • Postindustrial society emphasizes data technology but also increasingly makes it difficult for individuals without higher educations to find gainful employment.

For Your Review

  1. Explain why societies became more unequal in terms of gender and wealth as they adult and became larger.
  2. Explain why societies became more than individualistic as they developed and became larger.
  3. Describe the benefits and disadvantages of industrial societies equally compared to before societies.

Compare and Contrast Horticultural Societies With Agricultural Societies

Source: https://2012books.lardbucket.org/books/sociology-comprehensive-edition/s08-02-the-development-of-modern-soci.html

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