All of the Following Are True About Emotions Except

All of the Following Are True About Emotions Except.

There are many unlike types of emotions that have an influence on how nosotros live and interact with others. At times, it may seem like we are ruled by these emotions. The choices we brand, the deportment nosotros accept, and the perceptions nosotros have are all influenced by the emotions nosotros are experiencing at any given moment.

Psychologists accept as well tried to place the unlike types of emotions that people experience. A few different theories take emerged to categorize and explain the emotions that people experience.

Basic Emotions

During the 1970s, psychologist Paul Eckman identified six basic emotions that he suggested were universally experienced in all homo cultures. The emotions he identified were happiness, sadness, disgust, fear, surprise, and anger. He afterward expanded his listing of basic emotions to include such things equally pride, shame, embarrassment, and excitement.

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Combining Emotions

Psychologist Robert Plutchik put forth a “wheel of emotions” that worked something similar the colour wheel. Emotions tin can be combined to form different feelings, much like colors can be mixed to create other shades.

According to this theory, the more than basic emotions human activity something like edifice blocks. More complex, sometimes mixed emotions, are blendings of these more basic ones. For example, basic emotions such as joy and trust can be combined to create love.

A 2017 report suggests that in that location are far more basic emotions than previously believed. In the study published in
Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, researchers identified 27 different categories of emotion.

Rather than existence entirely distinct, even so, the researchers plant that people experience these emotions along a gradient. Let’s take a closer expect at some of the basic types of emotions and explore the affect they have on human being beliefs.


Of all the different types of emotions, happiness tends to exist the one that people strive for the most. Happiness is often defined as a pleasant emotional state that is characterized by feelings of contentment, joy, gratification, satisfaction, and well-being.

Research on happiness has increased significantly since the 1960s within a number of disciplines, including the branch of psychology known as positive psychology. This type of emotion is sometimes expressed through:

  • Facial expressions: such every bit grinning
  • Body linguistic communication: such equally a relaxed stance
  • Tone of voice: an upbeat, pleasant style of speaking

While happiness is considered one of the basic man emotions, the things we
will create happiness tend to be heavily influenced by culture. For example, pop culture influences tend to emphasize that attaining certain things such as buying a home or having a high-paying job volition result in happiness.

The realities of what actually contributes to happiness are often much more complex and more highly individualized. People have long believed that happiness and health were continued, and research has supported the thought that happiness can play a function in both physical and mental health.

Happiness has been linked to a variety of outcomes including increased longevity and increased marital satisfaction. Conversely, unhappiness has been linked to a diversity of poor wellness outcomes.

Stress, anxiety, depression, and loneliness, for case, accept been linked to things such equally lowered immunity, increased inflammation, and decreased life expectancy.


Sadness is another blazon of emotion often defined as a transient emotional land characterized past feelings of disappointment, grief, hopelessness, disinterest, and dampened mood.

Like other emotions, sadness is something that all people experience from time to time. In some cases, people can experience prolonged and severe periods of sadness that can turn into depression. Sadness can be expressed in a number of ways including:

  • Crying
  • Dampened mood
  • Languor
  • Quietness
  • Withdrawal from others

The type and severity of sadness can vary depending upon the root crusade, and how people cope with such feelings tin as well differ.

Sadness can often lead people to engage in coping mechanisms such as avoiding other people, cocky-medicating, and ruminating on negative thoughts. Such behaviors tin can actually exacerbate feelings of sadness and prolong the elapsing of the emotion.


Fearfulness is a powerful emotion that tin can also play an of import part in survival. When yous face some sort of danger and experience fearfulness, you go through what is known as the fight or flight response.

Your muscles go tense, your middle rate and respiration increase, and your heed becomes more than alert, priming your body to either run from the danger or stand and fight.

This response helps ensure that yous are prepared to finer deal with threats in your environment. Expressions of this type of emotion can include:

  • Facial expressions: such equally widening the eyes and pulling back the chin
  • Body language: attempts to hide or flea from the threat
  • Physiological reactions: such every bit rapid breathing and heartbeat

Of course, not everyone experiences fear in the same way. Some people may exist more sensitive to fear and sure situations or objects may be more likely to trigger this emotion.

Fear is the emotional response to an immediate threat. We tin can besides develop a similar reaction to predictable threats or even our thoughts almost potential dangers, and this is what we mostly remember of as anxiety. Social feet, for example, involves an anticipated fear of social situations.

Some people, on the other hand, actually seek out fearfulness-provoking situations. Extreme sports and other thrills can exist fear-inducing, merely some people seem to thrive and fifty-fifty enjoy such feelings.

Repeated exposure to a fear object or situation tin can lead to familiarity and acclimation, which can reduce feelings of fearfulness and anxiety.

This is the idea behind exposure therapy, in which people are gradually exposed to the things that frighten them in a controlled and safe way. Eventually, feelings of fright begin to decrease.


Cloy is another of the original half-dozen bones emotions described by Eckman. Disgust can be displayed in a number of means including:

  • Body language: turning away from the object of cloy
  • Concrete reactions: such equally vomiting or retching
  • Facial expressions: such every bit wrinkling the nose and curling the upper lip

This sense of revulsion can originate from a number of things, including an unpleasant gustatory modality, sight, or smell. Researchers believe that this emotion evolved as a reaction to foods that might be harmful or fatal. When people smell or taste foods that take gone bad, for example, disgust is a typical reaction.

Poor hygiene, infection, blood, rot, and death can too trigger a cloy response. This may be the trunk’s way of fugitive things that may carry transmittable diseases.

People tin can besides experience moral disgust when they observe others engaging in behaviors that they notice distasteful, immoral, or evil.


Acrimony tin can be a particularly powerful emotion characterized by feelings of hostility, agitation, frustration, and antagonism towards others. Like fear, anger can play a part in your trunk’southward fight or flying response.

When a threat generates feelings of acrimony, you lot may be inclined to fend off the danger and protect yourself. Anger is ofttimes displayed through:

  • Facial expressions: such as frowning or glaring
  • Body language: such as taking a strong opinion or turning away
  • Tone of voice: such equally speaking gruffly or yelling
  • Physiological responses: such as sweating or turning red
  • Aggressive behaviors: such as hitting, kicking, or throwing objects

While anger is often thought of every bit a negative emotion, it can sometimes exist a good affair. It can be constructive in helping clarify your needs in a relationship, and it tin also motivate yous to take action and find solutions to things that are bothering you.

Acrimony can become a problem, even so, when it is excessive or expressed in ways that are unhealthy, dangerous, or harmful to others. Uncontrolled acrimony tin quickly turn to aggression, abuse, or violence.

This blazon of emotion tin can have both mental and physical consequences. Unchecked acrimony tin brand it difficult to brand rational decisions and tin even have an bear upon on your concrete wellness.

Anger has been linked to coronary heart diseases and diabetes. It has too been linked to behaviors that pose health risks such every bit aggressive driving, booze consumption, and smoking.

Become Advice From The Verywell Mind Podcast

Hosted past Editor-in-Chief and therapist Amy Morin, LCSW, this episode of The Verywell Mind Podcast shares how yous tin can lean into uncomfortable emotions.

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Surprise is another one of the six bones types of human emotions originally described by Eckman. Surprise is ordinarily quite cursory and is characterized by a physiological startle response following something unexpected.

This type of emotion tin can be positive, negative, or neutral. An unpleasant surprise, for example, might involve someone jumping out from behind a tree and scaring you equally you walk to your car at nighttime.

An case of a pleasant surprise would exist arriving abode to detect that your closest friends accept gathered to celebrate your birthday. Surprise is often characterized by:

  • Facial expressions: such as raising the brows, widening the eyes, and opening the rima oris
  • Physical responses: such as jumping dorsum
  • Exact reactions: such equally yelling, screaming, or gasping

Surprise is some other type of emotion that can trigger the fight or flying response. When startled, people may experience a burst of adrenaline that helps prepare the trunk to either fight or flee.

Surprise can have important effects on homo beliefs. For example, research has shown that people tend to unduly notice surprising events.

This is why surprising and unusual events in the news tend to stand out in memory more than others. Research has also found that people tend to be more than swayed past surprising arguments and learn more from surprising data.

Other Types of Emotions

The six basic emotions described by Eckman are just a portion of the many dissimilar types of emotions that people are capable of experiencing. Eckman’southward theory suggests that these core emotions are universal throughout cultures all over the world.

All the same, other theories and new research continue to explore the many different types of emotions and how they are classified. Eckman later added a number of other emotions to his listing simply suggested that unlike his original six emotions, not all of these could necessarily be encoded through facial expressions. Some of the emotions he later identified included:

  • Entertainment
  • Contempt
  • Contentment
  • Embarrassment
  • Excitement
  • Guilt
  • Pride in achievement
  • Relief
  • Satisfaction
  • Shame

Other Theories of Emotion

As with many concepts in psychology, not all theorists agree on how to classify emotions or what the basic emotions actually are. While Eckman’s theory is ane of the all-time known, other theorists accept proposed their own ideas about what emotions brand up the cadre of the human experience.

For example, some researchers take suggested that there are simply ii or three basic emotions. Others have suggested that emotions be in something of a hierarchy. Primary emotions such as love, joy, surprise, anger, and sadness tin and so be further cleaved down into secondary emotions. Love, for case, consists of secondary emotions, such as affection and longing.

These secondary emotions might then be broken downwards still further into what are known equally tertiary emotions. The secondary emotion of amore includes 3rd emotions, such as liking, caring, compassion, and tenderness.

A more recent study suggests that in that location are at least 27 distinct emotions, all of which are highly interconnected.
After analyzing the responses of more than 800 men to more than ii,000 video clips, researchers created an interactive map to demonstrate how these emotions are related to i some other.

“We establish that 27 singled-out dimensions, not six, were necessary to business relationship for the way hundreds of people reliably reported feeling in response to each video,” explained the senior researcher Dacher Keltner, faculty director of the Greater Skilful Science Center.

In other words, emotions are not states that occur in isolation. Instead, the study suggests that in that location are gradients of emotion and that these different feelings are deeply inter-related.

Alan Cowen, the study’due south pb author and doctoral student in neuroscience at UC Berkeley, suggests that meliorate clarifying the nature of our emotions can play an important part in helping scientists, psychologists, and physicians larn more most how emotions underlie encephalon activity, behavior, and mood. By building a better understanding of these states, he hopes that researchers can develop improved treatments for psychiatric conditions.

A Word From Verywell

Emotions play a disquisitional role in how nosotros live our lives, from influencing how we engage with others in our day to solar day lives to affecting the decisions we make. By understanding some of the unlike types of emotions, you lot tin can proceeds a deeper understanding of how these emotions are expressed and the impact they have on your behavior.

Information technology is of import to recall, all the same, that no emotion is an isle. Instead, the many emotions you lot experience are nuanced and complex, working together to create the rich and varied fabric of your emotional life.

Verywell Heed uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process to larn more than nearly how we fact-bank check and go along our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

  1. Cowen AS, Keltner D. Cocky-written report captures 27 singled-out categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients.
    Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2017;114(38):E7900-E7909. doi:ten.1073/pnas.1702247114

  2. Gruber J, Moskowitz JT, eds.
    Positive Emotion, Integrating the Low-cal Sides and Dark Sides
    OUP USA; 2014. doi:x.1093/acprof:oso/9780199926725.001.0001

  3. Lawrence EM, Rogers RG, Wadsworth T. Happiness and longevity in the Usa.
    Soc Sci Med.
    2015;145:115-9. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.09.020

  4. Wolkowitz OM, Epel ES, Reus 6, Mellon SH. Depression gets onetime fast: practise stress and low advance cell aging?
    Depress Anxiety.
    2010;27(4):327-38. doi:10.1002/da.20686

  5. Kozlowska K, Walker P, Mclean L, Carrive P. Fearfulness and the Defence force Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management.
    Harv Rev Psychiatry.
    2015;23(4):263-87. doi:ten.1097/HRP.0000000000000065

  6. Adolphs R. The biology of fearfulness.
    Curr Biol. 2013;23(2):R79-93. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.055

  7. Oaten Grand, Stevenson RJ, Case TI. Disgust as a disease-abstention machinery.
    Psychol Bull.
    2009;135(ii):303-21. doi:ten.1037/a0014823

  8. Staicu ML, Cuţov Thousand. Anger and health risk behaviors.
    J Med Life.

  9. Gottlieb MM.
    The Aroused Self: a Comprehensive Approach to Anger Direction
    Phoenix, AZ: Zeig, Tucker & Co.; 1999.

  10. Ortony A, Turner TJ. What’s basic almost basic emotions?
    Psychol Rev.
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  11. Anwar Y. Emoji fans take heart: Scientists pinpoint 27 states of emotion. Berkeley News. 2017.

Boosted Reading

  • Cowen, Every bit & Keltner, D. Self-report captures 27 distinct categories of emotion bridged by continuous gradients. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences. 2017. doi:
  • Mellers, B, Fincher, Yard, Drummond, C, Bigony, Thou. Surprise: A belief or an emotion?  In V.South. Chandrasekhar Pammi and Narayanan Srinivasan (Eds.)., Progress in Encephalon Research, Vol. 202, Amsterdam: The Netherlands, 2013, pp. 3-19.
  • Shirai, M & Suzuki, Northward. Is sadness simply one emotion? Psychological and physiological responses to sadnesss induced past two different situations: “Loss of someone” and “failure to accomplish a goal.” Frontiers in Psychology. 2017;8:288. doi:
  • Staicu, ML & Cutov, M. Anger and health risk behaviors. Journal of Medicine and Life. 2010;3(4):372-375.

Past Kendra Cherry

Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author and educational consultant focused on helping students learn most psychology.

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All of the Following Are True About Emotions Except


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