A Healthy Watershed Helps to Prevent.
COVID-nineteen: Prevention, Symptoms and Treatments
COVID-nineteen is a disease acquired by a virus chosen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-ii). Experts identified the first cases in late 2019, and the World Health Arrangement declared COVID-nineteen a global pandemic in March 2020.
This novel (new) coronavirus belongs to the same family of viruses as the ane that causes the cold. Coronaviruses become their name from the Latin word “corona,” which ways “crown.” This is because of the crown-shaped fasten proteins on the surface of the virus.
The COVID-19 pandemic has had an immense touch on the unabridged world. Millions of people have died, and millions more are living with lingering wellness effects of the disease. Fortunately, the scientific community was able to mobilize rapidly and develop prophylactic, effective vaccines to help stop the spread of COVID-nineteen. Merely it’s still important to take prevention steps and be aware of the symptoms and risk factors for the virus.
Symptoms of COVID-19 can vary from person to person. Some people get very sick, while some have only balmy symptoms or no symptoms at all. If you accept the virus merely you don’t have any symptoms, you’re “asymptomatic” — but you can still spread information technology to other people.
Symptoms may take anywhere from two to 14 days to appear. This means that yous might non discover symptoms for 2 weeks, but yous may still spread the virus to other people during that time.
Common COVID-19 symptoms include:
- Fever or chills
- Shortness of breath or trouble breathing
- Fatigue (feeling very tired)
- Loss of taste or smell
- Headache or body aches
- Nasal congestion or runny nose
- Sore throat
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
Although virtually people have only mild to moderate COVID-19 symptoms, it can also cause severe complications and fifty-fifty decease. Astringent complications include:
- Pneumonia and astute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
- Heart and kidney problems
- Blood clots
- Organ failure
I Have Symptoms of COVID-nineteen. What Should I Do?
Nigh people have balmy to moderate symptoms and tin recover at home. If you have mild COVID-19 symptoms, similar to a cold or flu, have these steps:
and away from other people for at least five days from when your symptoms first started. If yous alive with other people, effort to separate yourself from them as much as possible. Stay in a separate room and wear a mask when you lot’re near other people. Only leave your home to become medical intendance or to get tested.
- Get tested. You tin can get at-abode tests online or over the counter from your local chemist’s. They’re easy to employ and provide rapid results, and testing at home can limit the number of people yous come in contact with. If you lot test positive, continue to isolate at domicile for at least five days from when your symptoms offset started.
Tell your close contacts.
If y’all were around other people in the two days before your symptoms started, let them know that you’re sick. That way, they tin get tested and avoid spreading the virus to others.
by resting, drinking enough of fluids and using over-the-counter medicines (like Advil or Tylenol) every bit needed.
Talk with your physician
nearly whatever symptoms you’re concerned about and keep runway of how you’re feeling day to day. Always call ahead earlier visiting the doctor. Y’all may exist able to do a telehealth visit instead.
If you or someone else has whatsoever of the following emergency symptoms,
get aid right away:
- Problem breathing
- Hurting or pressure in your chest that doesn’t get abroad
- Confusion (new mental confusion that’s not normal for you)
- Inability to wake upwardly or to stay awake
- Pale, gray or blue coloring on your skin, lips or nail beds (color will depend on your skin tone)
These are signs of a medical emergency.
Telephone call 911 or get to the nearest emergency room
Am I At Higher Risk for Severe COVID-xix?
Anyone can get ill from COVID-xix — even healthy children and young adults. But it’s more likely to crusade severe illness in older adults and people with underlying health weather, including:
- Asthma or other chronic lung conditions
- Dementia or other nervous system atmospheric condition
- Centre, liver or kidney conditions
- HIV or other immune organization issues
- Sickle cell disease or thalassemia
You’re too at higher gamble of getting seriously sick from Covid-19 if you:
- Are pregnant
- Are overweight or have obesity
- Smoke or used to smoke
- Have had an organ transplant
- Have a mental health or substance use condition
If you or someone you live with is at higher risk for COVID-xix, it’s of import to have steps to avoid getting infected — like getting vaccinated and wearing masks when you’re out in public.
How Do People Get COVID-19?
COVID-xix is highly contagious — information technology spreads very easily from person to person. The virus mainly spreads through the air.
When someone with COVID-nineteen breathes, talks, coughs or sneezes, they release virus into the air on tiny droplets or even tinier aerosol particles. You tin can get infected if you breathe in these aerosol and particles — or if they land in your optics, nose or mouth.
Aerosol settle out of the air fairly quickly, merely aerosol particles can stay in the air for hours. That’due south why COVID-nineteen spreads very easily in indoor spaces without expert ventilation. You can too get COVID-nineteen if y’all touch a surface with virus droplets on it, and then touch your optics, nose or mouth.
How Can I Protect Myself and Others from COVID-xix?
The best fashion to protect yourself and other people is to
COVID-19 vaccines accept been scientifically proven to be rubber and effective and the existent-globe results as well provide additional evidence of their effectiveness. Vaccinated people have a much lower chance of getting COVID-19 — and if you do go ill after getting vaccinated, you lot’re much less likely to get severely sick or to dice. Vaccines besides make it less probable that you’ll spread the virus to other people.
Vaccines are currently available for all adults and for children ages five and older. Vaccines for children younger than five are currently in development. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized three COVID-nineteen vaccines for use in the United States: Pfizer, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson. Experts recommend that people become either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine as a start choice, if they’re bachelor.
Both the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines need two doses, several months apart. You lot’ll as well demand a booster dose six months after to proceed your amnesty as strong equally possible. Experts may recommend more booster doses equally new COVID-xix variants spread, simply the current vaccines however provide very good protection from the worst effects of the affliction.
You can besides take these steps to protect yourself and those around you lot:
Wear a mask
that covers your nose and mouth in indoor public spaces.
and public indoor spaces without skilful ventilation.
or utilize at-domicile tests to avoid spreading the virus to others.
Launder your easily
regularly with soap and h2o.
How Is COVID-19 Diagnosed?
If y’all have symptoms of COVID-nineteen or you’ve been in close contact with someone who has tested positive, y’all’ll need a test to find out if you have the virus. There are two main types of tests for COVID-19:
— these tests look for the genetic material of the virus. They’re very authentic, only they often need to be processed by a lab, and results can accept several days. The nigh mutual blazon is a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test.
Rapid antigen tests
— these tests look for specific viral proteins. They’re non as accurate as PCR tests, but they’re quick and easy to do with at-home testing kits.
Both types of examination apply a nose or throat swab or a saliva sample. You lot tin get both kinds at many locations, including a medico’s part, pharmacy or a community testing site. Y’all can also become at-home testing kits online or over the counter at pharmacies.
What Are the Treatments for COVID-xix?
Most people accept only mild affliction and recover from COVID-xix without needing whatever treatment. If yous have mild symptoms, yous tin endeavor over-the-counter medicines like fever reducers and cough syrups. Fifty-fifty with mild symptoms, it’due south still very important to become enough of residual and to stay hydrated — and to stay abroad from other people so you don’t go them ill.
People with severe COVID-19 may need to stay in the hospital and get supplemental oxygen or even a ventilator to help them breathe. Doctors may also use steroids and other medicines to treat astringent COVID-xix symptoms — but in that location’s currently no cure and few constructive treatments for COVID-xix.
And then far, the FDA has only fully approved 1 drug to treat COVID-19: the antiviral drug remdesivir. The FDA has also allowed doctors to use several other treatments under an Emergency Use Authority. These include:
- Monoclonal antibody therapies that can help the allowed system respond to COVID-xix
- Paxlovid and molnupiravir, ii types of antiviral pills
Researchers are working to develop more effective treatments for COVID-xix. In the concurrently, the best fashion to protect yourself and others is to get vaccinated and wear masks in indoor public spaces.
Your Next Steps
Recall, the showtime step in protecting yourself and others from COVID-19 is to get vaccinated right away. If you lot’re not vaccinated yet, utilise this tool to detect a vaccine engagement about y’all.
Wearing your mask in indoor public spaces is also primal to stopping the spread of the virus. Masks help protect you and brand it less likely that you’ll spread the virus to others. And keep on washing your hands and avoiding crowded spaces.
And if you think yous may have COVID-19, talk with your doctor about your symptoms — and stay away from other people to avert spreading the virus.
- “How to Protect Yourself & Others” via Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- “Symptoms of COVID-19” via CDC
- “What to Practice If You lot Are Ill” via CDC
- “Quarantine and Isolation” via CDC
- “Coronavirus Disease 2019 Testing Basics” via Nutrient and Drug Administration
- “Coronavirus (COVID-nineteen) Dashboard” via World Health Organisation
A Healthy Watershed Helps to Prevent