A Candy Store Called Sugar Built a Giant Hollow

Cultivar of a squash plant

A
pumpkin
is a cultivar of winter squash that is circular with shine, slightly ribbed peel, and is most ofttimes deep yellow to orange in coloration.[1]
The thick vanquish contains the seeds and pulp. The name is nigh commonly used for cultivars of
Cucurbita pepo, simply some cultivars of
Cucurbita maxima,
C. argyrosperma, and
C. moschata
with similar appearance are likewise sometimes called “pumpkins”.[1]

Native to North America (northeastern Mexico and the southern United States),[1]
pumpkins are ane of the oldest domesticated plants, having been used as early on as 7,000 to 5,500 BC.[one]
Pumpkins are widely grown for nutrient, as well as for aesthetic and recreational purposes.[2]
Pumpkin pie, for instance, is a traditional part of Thanksgiving meals in Canada and the United States, and pumpkins are frequently carved every bit jack-o’-lanterns for decoration around Halloween, although commercially canned pumpkin purée and pumpkin pie fillings are unremarkably made from varieties of winter squash different from the ones used for jack-o’-lanterns.[1]

Etymology and terminology

[edit]

According to the Oxford English Lexicon,
the English language give-and-take
pumpkin
derives from the Ancient Greek word

πέπων

(romanized

pepon
), meaning ‘melon’.[3]
[four]
Under this theory, the term transitioned through the Latin word

peponem

and the Centre French word

pompon

to the Early Modern English

pompion
, which was changed to
pumpkin
by 17th-century English language colonists, shortly subsequently encountering pumpkins upon their arrival in what is now the northeastern United States.[3]

An alternate derivation for
pumpkin
is the Massachusett give-and-take

pôhpukun
, meaning ‘grows forth round’.[5]
This term would likely have been used by the Wampanoag people (who speak the

Wôpanâak

dialect of Massachusett) when introducing pumpkins to English language Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony, located in nowadays-day Massachusetts.[half-dozen]
The English word
squash
is also derived from a Massachusett give-and-take, variously transcribed every bit

askꝏtasquash
,[7]

ashk8tasqash
, or, in the closely-related Narragansett language,

askútasquash
.[viii]

The term
pumpkin
has no agreed upon botanical or scientific meaning,[nine]
and is used interchangeably with “squash” and “winter squash”.[i]
In North America and the U.k.,
pumpkin
traditionally refers to only sure round orange varieties of winter squash, predominantly derived from
Cucurbita pepo, while in New Zealand and Australian English, the term
pumpkin
more often than not refers to all winter squash.[10]

Clarification

[edit]

Cross section of a pumpkin

Pumpkins, like other squash, originated in northeastern United mexican states and southern U.s.a..[1]
The oldest evidence is pumpkin fragments found in Mexico that are dated between 7,000 and 5,500 BC.[1]
Pumpkin vegetables are a blazon of botanical drupe known as a pepo.[i]
[11]

Traditional
C. pepo
pumpkins more often than not weigh betwixt 3 and 8 kilograms (6 and eighteen lb), though the largest cultivars (of the species
C. maxima) regularly reach weights of over 34 kg (75 lb).[12]

The color of pumpkins derives from orange carotenoid pigments, including beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha and beta carotene, all of which are provitamin A compounds converted to vitamin A in the body.[13]

Taxonomy

[edit]

All pumpkins are winter squash, mature fruit of sure species in the genus
Cucurbita. Characteristics ordinarily used to define “pumpkin” include smooth and slightly ribbed skin,[xiv]
and deep xanthous to orange color.[14]
Circa 2005, white pumpkins had become increasingly pop in the United States.[15]
Other colors, including night green (as with some oilseed pumpkins), also be.

The traditional American pumpkin used for jack-o-lanterns is the Connecticut field diversity.[2]
[16]
[17]
[18]

Giant pumpkins are large squash with a pumpkin-like appearance that grow to infrequent size, with the largest exceeding a tonne in mass.[xix]
[20]
Most are varieties of
Cucurbita maxima, and were developed through the efforts of botanical societies and enthusiast farmers.[xix]

Production

[edit]

Pumpkin production – 2020
(includes squash and gourds)
Country millions of tonnes

People’s republic of china
7.iv

India
five.1

Ukraine
1.3

Russian federation
1.ane

United States
1.i

Spain
0.8
World 28.0
Source: FAOSTAT of the Un
[21]

In 2020, globe production of pumpkins (including squash and gourds) was 28 million tonnes, with Red china accounting for 27% of the total. Ukraine and Russia each produced well-nigh one million tonnes.[21]

In the United States

[edit]

As one of the well-nigh popular crops in the The states, in 2017 over 680 million kilograms (ane.5 billion pounds) of pumpkins were produced.[22]
The top pumpkin-producing states include Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and California.[2]

According to the Illinois Department of Agronomics, 95% of the U.S. crop intended for processing is grown in Illinois.[23]
And 41% of the overall pumpkin ingather for all uses originates in the state, more than v times the nearest competitor (California, whose pumpkin industry is centered in the San Joaquin Valley), and the majority of that comes from five counties in the fundamental part of the state.[24]
Nestlé, operating under the brand proper noun
Libby’south, produces 85% of the processed pumpkin in the United states, at their establish in Morton, Illinois. In the fall of 2009, rain in Illinois devastated the Nestlé ingather, which combined with a relatively weak 2008 crop depleting that year’s reserves resulted in a shortage affecting the entire country during the Thanksgiving vacation flavour.[25]
Another shortage, somewhat less severe, affected the 2015 crop.[26]
[27]
The pumpkin crop grown in the western Us, which constitutes approximately 3-4% of the national ingather, is primarily for the organic market.[28]
Terry County, Texas, has a substantial pumpkin manufacture, centered largely on miniature pumpkins.[24]

Pumpkins are a warm-weather crop that is usually planted in early July. The specific atmospheric condition necessary for growing pumpkins require that soil temperatures 8 centimetres (3 in) deep are at to the lowest degree 15.5 °C (threescore °F) and that the soil holds water well. Pumpkin crops may suffer if there is a lack of water or because of cold temperatures (in this case, below eighteen °C or 65 °F). Soil that is sandy with poor h2o retention or poorly drained soils that go waterlogged after heavy pelting are both detrimental. Pumpkins are, however, rather hardy, and fifty-fifty if many leaves and portions of the vine are removed or damaged, the plant can quickly abound secondary vines to replace what was removed.[22]

Read:   Using Carbo Loading to Increase the Store of Glycogen

Pumpkins produce both a male and female flower, with fertilization usually performed by bees.[22]
In America, pumpkins have historically been pollinated by the native squash bee,
Peponapis pruinosa, just that bee has declined, probably partly due to pesticide (imidacloprid) sensitivity.[29]
Ground-based bees, such as squash bees and the eastern bumblebee, are amend suited to manage the larger pollen particles that pumpkins create,[30]
[31]
merely today nearly commercial plantings are pollinated by hives of honeybees, which also allows the product and sale of honey that the bees produce from the pumpkin pollen. One hive per acre (0.iv hectares, or five hives per 2 hectares) is recommended past the U.S. Department of Agriculture. If there are inadequate bees for pollination, gardeners may have to hand pollinate. Inadequately pollinated pumpkins commonly first growing simply neglect to develop.

Nutrition

[edit]

Pumpkin, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 109 kJ (26 kcal)

Carbohydrates

6.5 g

Sugars ii.76 g
Dietary cobweb 0.5 g

Fat

0.ane g

Protein

1 g

Vitamins Quantity


%DV

Vitamin A equiv.

beta-Carotene

lutein zeaxanthin

53%

426 μg

29%

3100 μg

1500 μg

Thiamine (Bane)

four%

0.05 mg

Riboflavin (B2)

nine%

0.11 mg

Niacin (Bthree)

iv%

0.6 mg

Pantothenic acid (B5)

6%

0.298 mg

Vitamin B6

five%

0.061 mg

Folate (Bix)

4%

16 μg

Vitamin C

eleven%

9 mg

Vitamin East

3%

0.44 mg

Vitamin K

1%

i.one μg

Minerals Quantity


%DV

Calcium

2%

21 mg

Iron

6%

0.viii mg

Magnesium

3%

12 mg

Manganese

six%

0.125 mg

Phosphorus

6%

44 mg

Potassium

7%

340 mg

Sodium

0%

one mg

Zinc

3%

0.32 mg

Other constituents Quantity
H2o 91.6 g

Link to USDA Database entry

  • Units
  • μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
  • IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using Us recommendations for adults.

In a 100-gram (three.5 oz) amount, raw pumpkin provides 110 kilojoules (26 kilocalories) of food energy and is an excellent source (20% or more the Daily Value, DV) of provitamin A beta-carotene and vitamin A (53% DV) (table). Vitamin C is present in moderate content (11% DV), but no other nutrients are in significant amounts (less than 10% DV, table). Pumpkin is 92% water, 6.5% saccharide, 0.ane% fat and i% protein (table).

Uses

[edit]

Cooking

[edit]

Pumpkins have several culinary uses. Nigh parts of the pumpkin are edible, including the fleshy trounce, the seeds, the leaves, and the flowers. In the United States and Canada, pumpkin is a popular Halloween and Thanksgiving staple.[32]
Pumpkin purée is sometimes prepared and frozen for later employ.[33]

When ripe, the pumpkin can exist boiled, steamed, or roasted. In its native North America, pumpkins are an important function of the traditional autumn harvest, eaten mashed[34]
and making its mode into soups and purées. Oftentimes, it is made into pumpkin pie, various kinds of which are a traditional staple of the Canadian and American Thanksgiving holidays. In Canada, Mexico, the United States, Europe and China, the seeds are ofttimes roasted and eaten as a snack.

Pumpkins that are still modest and green may be eaten in the same manner as summer squash or zucchini. In the Center East, pumpkin is used for sweet dishes; a well-known sweet delicacy is chosen
halawa yaqtin. In the Indian subcontinent, pumpkin is cooked with butter, sugar, and spices in a dish chosen
kadu ka halwa. Pumpkin is used to make
sambar
in Udupi cuisine. In Guangxi province, China, the leaves of the pumpkin establish are consumed as a cooked vegetable or in soups. In Australia and New Zealand, pumpkin is often roasted in conjunction with other vegetables. In Japan, modest pumpkins are served in savory dishes, including tempura. In Myanmar, pumpkins are used in both cooking and desserts (candied). The seeds are a pop sunflower seed substitute. In Thailand, minor pumpkins are steamed with custard inside and served equally a dessert. In Vietnam, pumpkins are commonly cooked in soups with pork or shrimp. In Italy, information technology tin be used with cheeses as a savory stuffing for ravioli. Also, pumpkin tin be used to season both alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages.

In the southwestern United States and Mexico, pumpkin and squash flowers are a popular and widely available food item. They may be used to garnish dishes, or dredged in a batter then fried in oil. Pumpkin leaves are a popular vegetable in the western and central regions of Republic of kenya; they are called

seveve
, and are an ingredient of

mukimo
,[35]
respectively, whereas the pumpkin itself is usually boiled or steamed. The seeds are pop with children who roast them on a pan before eating them. Pumpkin leaves are also eaten in Republic of zambia, where they are called

chibwabwa

and are boiled and cooked with groundnut paste equally a side dish.[36]

Leaves

[edit]

Pumpkin leaves, usually of
C. moschata
varieties, are eaten as a vegetable in Korean cuisine.

Seeds

[edit]

Pumpkin seeds, also known as
pepitas, are edible and nutrient-rich. They are most 1.5 cm (0.v in) long, flat, asymmetrically oval, low-cal green in color and usually covered past a white husk, although some pumpkin varieties produce seeds without them. Pumpkin seeds are a popular snack that can be found hulled or semi-hulled at many grocery stores. Per ounce serving, pumpkin seeds are a adept source of poly peptide, magnesium, copper and zinc.[37]

Pumpkin seed oil

[edit]

Pumpkin seed oil, a thick oil pressed from roasted pumpkin seeds, appears red or green in colour depending on the oil layer thickness, container properties, and hue shift of the observer’south vision.[38]
[39]
When used for cooking or as a salad dressing, pumpkin seed oil is generally mixed with other oils because of its robust flavour.[twoscore]

[
expressionless link
]


Pumpkin seed oil contains fatty acids, such as oleic acid and blastoff-linolenic acrid.[41]

Other uses

[edit]

Pumpkins take been used as folk medicine by Native Americans to treat intestinal worms and urinary ailments, and this Native American remedy was adopted by American doctors in the early nineteenth century as an anthelmintic for the expulsion of worms.[42]
[
qualify evidence
]

In Germany and southeastern Europe, seeds of
C. pepo
were also used as folk remedies to treat irritable float and benign prostatic hyperplasia.[43]
[44]
[
authorize evidence
]

In China,
C. moschata
seeds were also used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of the parasitic disease schistosomiasis[45]
and for the expulsion of tape worms.[46]
[
qualify evidence
]
. Pumpkin seed meal (C. moschata) represents a rich source of nutrients for poultry feeding with significant improvements in eggs for homo consumption.[47]

Culture

[edit]

Halloween

[edit]

Pumpkins are commonly carved into decorative lanterns called jack-o’-lanterns for the Halloween season. Traditionally Uk and Ireland would cleave lanterns from vegetables, particularly the turnip, mangelwurzel, or swede,[48]. They proceed to be popular choices today as carved lanterns in Scotland and Northern Ireland, although the British purchased a million pumpkins for Halloween in 2004.[49]

The practise of carving pumpkins for Halloween originated from an Irish myth virtually a man named “Stingy Jack”.[2]
The turnip has traditionally been used in Ireland and Scotland at Halloween,[50]
but immigrants to North America used the native pumpkin, which are both readily bachelor and much larger – making them easier to carve than turnips.[50]
Not until 1837 does
jack-o’-lantern
appear as a term for a carved vegetable lantern,[51]
and the carved pumpkin lantern association with Halloween is recorded in 1866.[52]

In the Us, the carved pumpkin was kickoff associated with the harvest season in general, long earlier it became an emblem of Halloween.[53]
In 1900, an commodity on Thanksgiving entertaining recommended a lit jack-o’-lantern as office of the festivities that encourage kids and families to bring together together to make their own jack-o’-lanterns.[53]

Association of pumpkins with harvest time and pumpkin pie at Canadian and American Thanksgiving reinforce its iconic role. Starbucks turned this clan into marketing with its pumpkin spice latte, introduced in 2003.[54]
This has led to a notable trend in pumpkin and spice flavored food products in North America.[55]
This is despite the fact that North Americans rarely buy whole pumpkins to eat other than when carving jack-o’-lanterns. Illinois farmer Sarah Frey is called “the Pumpkin Queen of America” and sells around five million pumpkins annually, predominantly for use every bit lanterns.[56]
[57]

Chunking

[edit]

Pumpkin chunking is a competitive activity in which teams build various mechanical devices designed to throw a pumpkin equally far as possible. Catapults, trebuchets, ballistas and air cannons are the most common mechanisms.[
citation needed
]

Pumpkin festivals and competitions

[edit]

Growers of giant pumpkins often compete to grow the nearly massive pumpkins. Festivals may exist dedicated to the pumpkin and these competitions. In the United States, the town of Half Moon Bay, California, holds an annual Art and Pumpkin Festival, including the World Champion Pumpkin Weigh-Off.[58]

The tape for the world’s heaviest pumpkin, 1,226 kg (2,703 lb), was established in Italy in 2021.[20]

Folklore and fiction

[edit]

There is a connection in folklore and popular culture between pumpkins and the supernatural, such as:

  • The custom of etching jack-o-lanterns from pumpkins derives from folklore about a lost soul wandering the world.
  • In the fairy tale
    Cinderella, the fairy godmother turns a pumpkin into a carriage for the title character, only at midnight information technology reverts to a pumpkin.
  • In some adaptations of Washington Irving’s ghost story
    The Legend of Sleepy Hollow, the headless horseman is said to use a pumpkin equally a substitute head.

In most folklore the carved pumpkin is meant to scare away evil spirits on All Hallows’ Eve (that is, Halloween), when the dead were purported to walk the earth.

Gallery

[edit]

See besides

[edit]

  • List of culinary fruits
  • List of pumpkin varieties
  • List of squash and pumpkin dishes

References

[edit]

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    a




    b





    The Oxford companion to American nutrient and drink. Oxford University Press. 2007. p. 269. ISBN978-0-nineteen-530796-2
    . Retrieved
    February 17,
    2011
    .



  51. ^


    Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1837). “The Keen Carbuncle”.
    Twice-Told Tales.
    Hide it [the corking carbuncle] under thy cloak, say’st thou? Why, it will gleam through the holes, and brand thee look similar a jack-o’-lantern!



  52. ^


    Daily News
    (Kingston, Ontario), November i, 1866:

    The old time custom of keeping up Hallowe’en was not forgotten last night by the youngsters of the city. They had their maskings and their merry-makings, and perambulated the streets after night in a mode [that] was no dubiety amusing to themselves. There was a great sacrifice of pumpkins from which to make transparent heads and face, lighted upwards by the unfailing two inches of tallow candle.

  53. ^


    a




    b



    The Twenty-four hour period We Gloat: Thanksgiving Treated Gastronomically and Socially,
    The New York Times, November 24, 1895, p. 27. “Odd Ornaments for Table,”
    The New York Times, October 21, 1900, p. 12.

  54. ^


    Christopher Mims. “The untold history of Starbucks’ Pumpkin Spice Latte”.
    Quartz.



  55. ^


    “Considering Pumpkin Spice and Seasonal Synesthesia”.
    The American Conservative. September 28, 2013.



  56. ^


    “Pumpkins: from ornamentation to effeminateness”.
    Produce Retailer. Baronial 25, 2017. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved
    March 20,
    2018
    .



  57. ^


    “Elaine Reeves: For dearest of gourd”.
    The Mercury. March 4, 2017. Retrieved
    March 20,
    2018
    .



  58. ^


    “Half Moon Bay Art & Pumpkin Festival: A Brief History”. Miramar Events. 2016. Retrieved
    October 31,
    2016
    .


Farther reading

[edit]

  • Ott, Cindy (2012).
    Pumpkin: The Curious History of an American Icon. Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-99195-v.

External links

[edit]

  • Pumpkins at Curlie



A Candy Store Called Sugar Built a Giant Hollow

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pumpkin

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